• National hood- Is a state of being a nation or a large group of people being united by a common language, culture, economic life and national boundaries.
  • Nation- is a group of people who are bound together by a particular kind of identity which includes common origin, historical memories, culture, duties, and economic opportunities.
  • National values- these are accepted believes about what is good, desirable and useful and what is undesirable and unacceptable in a particular country.
  • Freedom- a state of being free to choose or act without being controlled by anyone.
  • Justice- treating each person in fairness without discrimination and all people equally.
  • Peace- this is a state of existing in a nation without fear.
  • Democracy- rule of the people by the people for the people.
  • Patriotism- Feeling of love for one’s country and cooperation with other citizens.

Ways of promoting our country.

  • Through artistic works like music that portray the culture of your country. A good example is Bongo flavor music from Tanzania.
  • Through participating in international sports and games like the international or world boxing championships, regional and international football competitions like Africa Cup of Nations (AFCON) and World Cup.
  • Through writing stories about good customs and traditions about your country. Such good stories are like the one below.
  • There are about 120 different tribes in Tanzania. Each tribe has its own customs and cultural values associated with history and religion.

Political map of Tanzania.

However, there are some customs and traditions that are common to all tribes.

They include the following:

The family is the main unit: The family is treated with seriousness and respect in all traditions and rites. It is customary to have many children. On average, there are about four children in each family. Parents are usually called after the first child in the family. A special attention is paid to the first-born.

Eating with the right hand: Tanzanians only eat with their right hand. Culturally, the right hand is viewed as clean, and therefore appropriate for picking up food and greeting people. The left hand is considered dirty, and used solely for ablutions and bathroom activities. Hence, doing otherwise is considered highly disrespectful.

Sniffing food is not allowed: Cultural beliefs dictate that food is only smelled when there is something wrong with it, or if it is thought to be rotten. Smelling food is considered to be highly insulting to the cook.

Being polite, considerate and friendly: Tanzanians generally have strong family ties and respect for elders. Children are raised to show respect, a strong sense of discipline as well as ability to control ones anger in public. These behaviours are highly valued.

Respect to elders: Most cultural groups in Tanzania believe that elders possess superior knowledge due to their age.

Thus,they should be treated with respect. Questioning their opinions and not showing courtesy in their presence is one of the highest cultural offenses. if in doubt as to what to do, it is best to just keep quiet.

Tanzania Nakupenda

Tanzania Tanzania,

Nakupenda kwa moyo wote, Nchi Tanzania,

Jina lako ni tamu sana,

Nilalapo nakuota wewe,

Niamkapo ni heri mama wee, Tanzania Tanzania,

Nakupenda kwa moyo wote.

Tanzania Tanzania, Ninapokwenda safarini,

Kutazama maajabu, Biashara nayo makazi,

Sitaweza kusahau mimi

Mambo memo ya kwetu kabisa, Tanzania Tanzania,

Nakupenda kwa moyo wote.

Tanzania Tanzania,

Watu wako ni wema sana, Nchi nyingi za kuota,

Nuru yako hakuna tena, Na wageni wa kukimbilia

Ngome yako imara kweli wee, Tanzania Tanzania,

Heri yako kwa mataifa

Tanzania Tanzania,

Karibu wasio na kwao,

Wenye shida na taabu,

Hukimbizwa na walowezi,

Tanzania yawakaribisha,

Tuungane kiume chema wee,

Tanzania Tanzania,

Mola awe nawe daima.

Tazama Romani

Tazama ramani utaona nchi nzuri,

Yenye mito na mabonde mengi ya nafaka, Nasema kwa kinywa halafu kwa kufikiri, Nchi hiyo mashuhuri huitwa Tanzania,

Majira yetu haya, yangekuwaje sasa,

Utumwa wa nchi, Nyerere ameukomesha. (x2)

Chemchemi ya furaha amani nipe tumaini, Kila mara kwako niwe nikiburudika, Nakupenda sana hata nikakusitiri, Nitalalamika kukuacha Tanzania,

Majira yetu haya, yangekuwaje sasa,

Utumwa wa nchi, Karume ameukomesha. (X2)

Nchi yenye azimio lenge tumaini,

Niwe peke yako mwanga wa watanzania,

Ninakuthamini hadharani na moyoni,

Unilinde nami nikulinde mpaka kufa,

Majira yetu haya, yangekuwaje sasa,

Utumwa wa nchi, Nyerere ameukomesha

Importance of nationhood

Nationhood is a state of being a nation or a large group of people being united by a common language, culture, economic life and national boundaries; national identity or independence. The three key elements of national hood are sovereignty, self determination and self sufficiently.

A nation is a group of people who are bound together by a particular kind of identity which includes common myths of origin, historical memories, a common culture, duties and economic opportunities and, above all, attachment to a given territory.

Also, a nation is a distinct group of people living in a specific region, whose people are similar in terms of race, ethnicity, culture or any other significant factors binding them together that result into a coherent thinking, setting itself free from the governance of another entity that is fundamentally different from them.

The following are some of the importance of nationhood:

It brings people together, makes them live together and help each other in various social and economic issues.

It brings a sense of unity and solidarity for the people who share a common language, culture and economic life.

It identifies the people of the same nation among many other people from different nations in terms of language, culture, historical background and many other aspects.

National values

  • These are accepted beliefs about what is good, desirable and useful, or what is undesirable and unacceptable in a particular nation.
  • Tanzanian national values are freedom, justice, peace, unity and harmony, democracy and patriotism.

1. Freedom. This is the state of being free to choose or act without being forced by anyone. It is also liberation from slavery or restraint or from the power of another entity

2. Justice. This is a situation in which people or government behave in a fair, equal and balanced way for everyone according to the law. Tanzania is a country that is governed by justice; governed by the rule of law.

3. Peace. This is a state of security or order within a community provided for by law or customs. Tanzania is a peaceful country, governed by the rule of law.

4. Unity and harmony. Tanzania is a united and harmonious country.

5. Democracy. This is a type of government in which the supreme power is vested in the people and exercised by them directly or indirectly through a system of representation usually involving free elections that are held periodically. Tanzania is a democratic nation that follows all democratic processes in governing the country.

6. Patriotism or national pride. This is the feeling of love for ones country and cooperation with other citizens who share the same feelings. This love can be due to a combination of many different feelings relating to one’s own homeland, including ethnic, cultural, political or historical aspects.

The contribution of the national values to the development of a country

The following are contributions of the national values to the development of a country:

  • Freedom plays a central role in human development. Human development is the most important factor of welfare improvement. Freedom is an essential element for achieving development. him or her by any state or institution, but such worth or value is inherent.
  • In peace, stability and transparency, the government can develop development plans and bring prosperity to her people. On the other hand, violence does not only lead to loss of lives, but also destroys the whole society, leaving schools and hospitals destroyed and a devastated population suffering the physical and psychological effects.
  • Unity in the communities and religious harmony are important for the development of a country. Divisions weaken a country. When all communities live in unity, the forces of divisions in the country will be weakened and freedom will be strengthened.
  • Democracy promotes sustainable development. Free and fair elections, independent media, accountable government, as well as other basic democratic principles, are all important elements that build an environment that allows growth to occur.
  • Patriotism demands good citizenship. It requires that individuals contribute to the well-being of their community and country us a whole. When citizens care about their society, they are encouraged to work hard and contribute to the welfare of their country.

The Structure of the Government of the United Republic of Tanzania

The government of the United Republic of Tanzania is run through the Executive for national government administration, and through regional and district administrative divisions for local government administration.

The Executive

This is the arm of the government that has sole authority and responsibility for the daily administration of the country. The Executive is composed of:

The President: Is the chief executive, the head of state, the head of government and the commander in chief of the armed forces. He is elected by people for a five year term.

The Vice President: Is elected along with the President. The Vice President is the principle assistant to the president in all affairs of the United Republic of Tanzania.

The Prime Minister: Is appointed by the President and approved by the Parliament. The Prime Minister must be the Member of Parliament and the leader of government affairs / activities in the National Assembly. The Prime Minister is also responsible for controlling daily government activities.

The cabinet: Is the principle advisory organ of the president. The Cabinet of the United Republic of Tanzania consists of:

  • The President
  • The Vice President
  • The Prime Minister
  • Ministers/ Cabinet Ministers

Note: Deputy Ministers are not members of the cabinet.

The responsibilities of the Executive

The Executive has the following responsibilities:

  1. To run the country and formulate policies for the interests of the citizens and according to the Constitution. to develop and implement policies 
  2. To direct and co-ordinate the works of the government departments.
  3. To prepare and initiate legislation and perform other functions as called for by the Constitution or legislation.
  4. To propose to the Legislature new laws and changes to existing laws.
  5. To implement legislations.
  6. To provide social services through ministries.
  7. To enforce law-done by police to law breakers.

Structure of the Executive Level of Government of the Republic of Tanzania

(a)The President

The President of Tanzania is the Head of State and Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of Tanzania. The president fuses the executive, legislature and judiciary, cs he has a formal role to play in:

The Legislature (Parliament, which is where legal and political sovereignty lies, is summoned and dissolved by must give his or her Presidential Assent to all Bills so that they become Acts.

The Executive (the President appoints all government ministers, Yeho ccter~ in the name of the President); and the Judiciary (the President, as the fount of justice, acts as the Ch;:r of the National Judicial Council, appoints all senior judges, and ail prosecutions are brought in his or her name).

As the Commander-in-Chief, appoints commission officers in defence farces that is Inspector General of Police (IGP) and Chief of Defence Forces (CDR.

(b)The Cabinet

  • Who is the head of thegovernment and chief advisor to the President of the United Republic of Tanzania?
  • Who appoints the Prime Minister of the United Republic of Tanzania?
  • List down any two duties of the Prime Minister of the United Republic of Tanzania.

Purpose of celebrating public holidays

Public or national holidays are those special days when majority of people do not go to work except those working in the police, military, hospitals and broadcasting stations. The National holidays include:

  • Independence Day
  • Revolution Day
  • Union Day
  • Karume Day
  • WorkersDay
  • Saba Saba Day
  • None Nane Day
  • Nyerere Day

Independence Day

We, Tanzanians celebrate our independence day on 9th December, every year. This is the day that marks the end of British colonial rule in Tanganyika. Tanganyika got her independence from the British on 9th December 1961. Tanzanians are normally celebrating Independence Day by going to the National Stadium in Dar es Salaam to witness army parades, watching traditional dances and listening to speeches from national leaders.

Revolution Day

Every 12th January is a national holiday in Tanzania to remember the Zanzibar Revolution that occurred in 1964. It is also the day when Abeid Amani Karume took office. In general, Zanzibar Revolutionary Day is a patriotic event that celebrates finally gaining of majority rule after two centuries of Arab domination of Zanzibar.

After having been a possession of the Arab state of Oman, Zanzibar gained her independence on 10th December 1963. The new government was headed by the sultan and was mainly ran by Arabs. And despite winning 54% of the votes in the 1963 parliamentary elections, the main African party lost anyway due to under-presentation. Zanzibar revolutionary day is celebrated officially at the Imani stadium in Zanzibar.

Union Day

In Tanzania, every 26th April is a Union Day to commemorate the creation of Tanzania through the union of Tanganyika and Zanzibar that occurred in 1964.Tanganyika and Zanzibar united to form the United Republic of Tanzania on 26th April 1964.

The leaders of the two countries, decided to unite their countries so as to speed up development and improve defence and security of their countries. The celebrations are accompanied by army parades, watching traditional dances and listening to speeches from national leaders. 

Saba Saba Day

The main event on Saba Saba Day is the Dar es Salaam International Trade Fair. The fair is meant to promote the export of Tanzanian goods, and thus, international trade with the rest of the world. Saba Saba day in Tanzania is a public holiday celebrated on 7th July every year.

First held in 1963, the Dar es Salaam International Trade Fair is now a huge annual event. There are usually around 1,500 or more exhibits from 15 to 20 countries, huge crowds from different nations, and a lot of peripheral food and entertainment related activities.

The fair is organized by the Board of External Trade and is supported by a large number of government and private organizations

Nane Nane Day

None Nane Day, which is also known as the Farmers Day is celebrated on 8th August, every year. Nane Nane celebrations aim at recognizing the contribution of farmers or peasants to national development. The farmers or peasants of this country, tirelessly cultivate food crops for us and cash crops as raw materials to feed our industries and for export.

Nyerere Day

Mwalimu Julius K. Nyerere was the first President of Tanganyika and later Tanzania. Mwalimu Nyerere and Sheikh Abeid Amani Karume were the founders of the United Republic of Tanzania. Mwalimu Nyerere passed away on 14th October 1999 in London, United Kingdom. We commemorate his death on 14th October, each year to honour him as one of the founders of our nation. Practice of democracy in Tanzania

Democracy is the fair and equal treatment of all people in the society. It means that, in a democratic society all people have the right to participate in decision-making.

There are about five essential requirements for democracy, namely education,

civic knowledge, spirit of tolerance, freedom of speech, association and press as well as constitution.

(a) Education

Education is one of the essential requirements for democracy. It gives people knowledge on how they can handle their lives. The problem is that, a lot of our people to whom power is vested are uneducated. They cannot properly understand political, social and economic problems within their areas and the value of their votes.

Lack of consciousness is dangerous for democracy.

Civic knowledge

Citizens should possess a high degree of civic knowledge. They should take active interest in the public life of their country. They should also possess a high standard of honest and moral attitude. Without high standard of honest and moral attitude, leaders may misuse their power.

Spirit of tolerance

Democracy is a government by debate and discussion. A keen spirit of tolerance is essential for constructive criticism and healthy discussions. Hence, a democratic government means a government by the majority. The majority should be sympathetic towards the minorities and the minorities should be willing to submit to the decisions of the majority.

Freedom of speech, association and press

Freedom of speech, association and press is the core of democracy. These freedoms allow a free room for the proper expansion of human personality. Absence of individual liberty hinders human personality and as a result affects democracy in general.


Constitution is also essential for the success of democracy. It helps in safeguarding individual liberty and keeping the different organs of government in their proper areas of authority.

A democratic government is the one that provides its citizens with the most freedom, the most opportunities, the greatest prosperity, and the most comfortable life. It is also the most stable form.

In a democratic society, you can choose a religion that is most meaningful to you and you can choose your spouse and your education. Citizens in different areas all over the country have the opportunity of participating freely In political meetings.

In a democracy you can move around freely and you do not have to ask anybody for permission to do so. Citizens have the opportunity to choose their representatives through elections that are free and fair.

If you belong to a minority, you are protected against any assault and infringement, and you have exactly the same rights as anybody else. You have the same right to education, training, and work, and you have the same opportunity for a free and a great life as others.

Democracy gives you the right to liberty, equality of opportunity, and safety. The desire for freedom and security is in every one of us, and so without democracy, we cannot live a happy and meaningful life.

Therefore, democracy is very important. We all deserve to live in a democracy that works.

Democracy is a word that is derived from the Greek term "demos"meaning "people".It is a system of governance that gives power to the people. Democracy can be exercised directly by citizens or through elected agents.

Events that show practice of democracy

The following are some of events that show the practice of democracy in our society:

1. Citizens have the opportunity to choose their representatives like councillors and members of parliament through elections that are free and fair.

Foundations of democracy.

Democracy is a word that is derived from the Greek term "demos" meaning "people" .It is a system of governance that gives power to the people. Democracy can be exercised directly by citizens or through elected agents.

The following are the foundations of democracy:

Citizen rule

A democratic government grants adult citizens the right to elect their representatives or be elected. It also establishes clear guidelines for election cycles and term limits so that key positions are contested at regular intervals. Through the process of voting, citizens are regularly given the ability to hire or fire their representatives.

Majority rule and minority rights

The principle of majority rule is an important part of the democratic system. The majority rules in the election process, but individual rights are protected by the maintenance of decentralized, local government bodies. In a democracy, all levels of government should be accessible to the people and their representative.

Individual rights/A bill of human rights

Democracies value the protection of individual rights. The word freedom is used synonymously with democracy to describe individual liberties found in this type of government. In the Constitution of the United Republic of Tanzania, Part III talks about Basic Rights and Duties. This serves as a summary of the basic rights each individual in the United Republic of Tanzania has. The Right to Equality, the Right to Life, Freedom of speech and religion, and protection from interference from his/her communication are examples of those rights that are found in a democracy. Equal treatment under the law is assured for everyone in a democratic society.

Free and fair elections

The key to the exercise of democracy is the election process. Free and fair elections are held at regular intervals for the election of representatives at all levels of government. In a free, democratic election, all adult citizens are given the right to cast votes which, in theory, ensures that the will of the people is expressed.

Citizen participation

Citizens in a democracy not only have the right to vote, but also the responsibility to participate in voting. Informed participation is key to democracy. When the people elect their representatives, they are ensuring that the democratic process is preserved. Engaging the citizens is essential for a healthy democracy.


There are several ways of promoting our country Tanzania.

Tanzania has about 120 Tribes each with its own culture.

Family is the main unit of a family.

We can praise our country by reciting national songs such as Tazama Ramani and Tanzania Nakupenda.

National hood is a very important aspect of a nation.

National hood brings, people together, brings sense of unity and identifies the people of the same nation.

National values includes, freedom, justice, peace, unity and harmony, democracy, patriotism and national pride.

There are three arms of the government; the executive, parliament and legislature.

Cabinet advices the president and consists of the president, vice president, prime minister and ministers and their assistants.

National public holidays are celebrated in our country because of their importance.

Example of national holidays includes; independence day, revolution day, union day, karume day, workers day, sabasaba day, nanenane day and Nyerere day.

Tanzania is a democratic country which holds elections after every five years.

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