SOCIAL STUDIES STANDARD FOUR
CHAPTER ONE : OUR ENVIRONMENT
Environment is all the things that surround us. Land, tress, animals birds, houses rivers etc are all parts of the environment.
The environment is the natural world in which people, animals and plants live.
Environment consists of living things and non-living things.
Examples of living organisms are people, plants and animals, Examples of non living things are Land, rivers rocks.
CONSERVING THE ENVIRONMENT OF THE SURROUNDING SOCIETY
To conserve is to protect. Environmental conservation is the practice of protecting the environment against destruction. Environment contributes a lot in shaping our lives. Therefore, it is our duty to conserve it. We should not destroy our environment.
The components of our village environment
Our village is called Mtakuja. It has a nice environment. People in our village conserve the environment. If you look carefully at the picture of Mtakuja village you will see that there is no destruction of environment in the village.
The river is clean. It is not contaminated. There are many trees. The grass is green. There are no factories which give out smoke and pollute the air. Animals feed on grass in an organised manner. Houses and huts in the village are also well spaced.
Actions which contribute to the destruction of the environment.
Environmental destruction is also called degradation. This is basically the reduction of quality of the environment by destroying it or adding dirt. The following human activities leads to destruction of the environment.
1. Cutting down of trees.
Cutting down of trees is the destruction of environment. It is also called deforestation. People cut trees for various reasons such as
Trees give us oxygen and rain. They are home of animals, birds and insects.
2. Burning forests and bashes
Burning forest destroys environment. If we bum forests. we destroy trees and other Ur:inc.,' organisms including insects. animals and birds. After burning forests, we stop getting honey, herbs and fruits. In case a forest is burnt, soil remains bare or uncovered. The hare soft easily gets eroded by wind, rain or animals.
3. Dumping Garbage and disposal industrial waste
Garbage attracts insects which cause diseases. It is dangerous to put a garbage dumping site near residential area.
Overgrazing is keeping a lot of animals in a very small piece of land. They eat the grass and leave the ground bare. Bare grounds leads to soil erosion. Bare ground also produce dust which causes disease like flue and cough to people.
5. Air Pollution.
To pollute air is to add impurities like smoke to it. It comes from factories, vehicles and other machines which use fuel. Polluted air can cause heart and lung diseases.
6. Mining activities
Mining is the removal of minerals from under the ground. Places where minerals are obtained are called mines. Mining also lead to environmental destruction. Many trees are cut during the establishment of mines. Mining also leads to making the landscape ugly. The land is left with pits which may be dangerous to people and animals.
Effects of environmental destruction
Effects of cutting down trees and clearing bushes
There is a great need for us to protect our environment. Without the natural vegetation our lives will be in great danger. Cutting down trees and clearing bushes affects our liveslfwecontinue to destroy the natural vegetation, the following will happen:
Effects of mining
Mining affects our environment as follows: -
Effects of industrial activities
Industrial activities affect our environment in the following ways:-
Effects of trade
Trade is the buying and selling of goods. Many people take part in trade. They move from one place to another. Trade also affects environment in the following ways: -
1. Many used products are dumped on roads and other places.
They include bottles, cans and polythene bags. Hawkers sell drinks on the streets in towns and cities. If cans and pollute containers are not well disposed or recycled they will pollute the environment.
Effects of Livestock Keeping
Livestock keeping affects environment in the following ways:-
Environmental conservation activities in our area
To conserve is to protect. Environmental conservation is the practice of protecting the environment against destruction. Environment is of great importance to us. It contributes a lot in shaping our lives. Therefore, it is our duty to conserve the environment. Our environment should be safe from destruction. You should not destroy the environment.
The following are environmental conservation activities done in our area: -
We should plant trees and flowers at home, school and in our area. The following are large scale tree planting schemes: -
Afforestation: This is the planting of trees where there are no trees before.
Reafforestation: It is the replanting of trees in an area where they have been cut down.
Agroforestry : This is the planting of trees and crops together
You should take good care of trees and flowers you plant. Watering makes plants grow well.
Benefits of conserving the environment
The following are the benefits of conserving the environment: -
Institutions which take part in environmental conservation
There are many institutions in our country which take part in environmental conservation. The following are institutions which involve themselves in protecting the environment.
1. Vice President's Office
The Vice President's Office has the national responsibility of educating people about environmental conservation. It prepares programs of educating people on the importance of conserving the environment.
The Vice President's Office also ensures that environmental conservation programs reach people through the media.
2. National Environment Management Council (NEMC)
NEMC was started in 1983 with the aim to oversee environmental management issues. It is the government organ that promotes environmental management in Tanzania through coordination, facilitation, awareness raising, enforcement, assessment, monitoring and research on environmental issues.
TOPICAL EXAMINATION : THE ENVIRONMENT
1. Write true for a correct statement and false for incorrect statement
2. Choose the correct answer from the choices given;
(i) …….is the removal of minerals from the ground
(ii)The following practices protects the land from degradation
(iii) Replanting trees from an area where they have been cut is called….
(iv) We should avoid using dynamite and ……………..chemical in fishing
(v) Keeping many animals in a small piece of land is called;
3. Write three effects of clearing environment
4. Write any four effects of mining
5. Write any four effects of industrial activities
6. Write three effects of trade on the environment
7. Mention the benefits of environmental conservations