Chapter 02 : Human development and production tools


In this chapter, you will learn the concepts Of tool, Stone Age, Iron Age and Digital Technological Age and their contributions to human development. You wit/ also learn how humans evolved along with their advancements in technology. Similarly, you will learn to compare advantages and disadvantages of the stone tools, the iron tools and the digital technology. You wit/ ä/so learn how discovery and use of iron tools have contributed to economic, social and cultural development. In addition, you will learn the benefits and consequences of using these tools Competencies to be gained in this chapter will help you analyse the importance of using technology in the development of a society. you will also be able to encourage the use of digital technology in production

The concept Of tool

A tool is any device that may be used by human beings to perform their daily tasks, At different times, a human being has been able to design and make tools such as knives, spears, hoes, axes and many others. Work tools can be used for cultivating, cutting, slashing, sculpting, defending, weaving, and hunting. A human being has also been able to design, make and use tools such as baskets. pots and refrigerators for home use. Inventing and making Of various too IS and instruments have enabled humans to work efficiently and control their environment in order to improve and live a better life. Creativity, design and use Of tools thus, are the aptitudes that distinguish the level Of development of human beings from other animals. Human development has been changing from time to time partly due to the tools used in production The kind of raw materials that are used to make the tools are the ones that identify the production age. From that context, we find different periods Of human development such as Stone Age, Iron Age and Digital Technological

The Stone Age

For the first time, humans began to use Stones to make tools, and that period is called the Stone Age- They used these tools for hunting, digging up edible roots, picking up fruits for food, as well as making clothes. Thus, the imageStone Age began as soon as a human being began to make and use stone tools

Development In The Stone Age

The early human being Started to live on earth about 3 000 000 years ago. Human beings began to make their own history on earth from this time. With creativity, humans were able to invent several things to help them address day to day challenges that would limit their development. For example. they designed and developed tools to meet their basic needs such as food, shelter, and clothing. The ability to make and use the right tools distinguishes humans from other animals Such as chimpanzees that appeared on the earth about 30 000 000 years ago. History shows that the first human skull was discovered in northern Tanzania, by then Tanganyika, in the Olduvai (Oldupai) Gorge in 1959. The skull was discovered by archaeologists Dr LOUIS Leakey and his wife Dr Mary Leakey.

During this period, the earliest humans used stones to make tools. As noted earlier, the use of stones to make tools was known as the Stone Age, Age is a certain period of time in life. The Stone Age is divided into three periods, that is, Early Stone Age, Middle Stone Age and Late Stone Age

The Early Stone Age

This period lasted from 3 000 000 BCE to 300 000 years ago when human beings lived in solitude. People were very few and rarely met or interacted For example, a few people would hunt and kill an animal, eat it up and go back to their own places of residence- They were constantly on the move, searching for food, water, and shelter.

Tools used by the early Stone Age people were temporary and less advanced_ For example, a human would pick up a stone or a piece of wood and cut down a fruit. Similarly, humans would use animal bones to dig up edible roots and insects. Finally, they Would throw the tools and carry the prey, root or fruit back to their places of residence. These tools were also used to fend off or fight wild animals such as lions and elephants in case they attacked humans.

The Early Stone Age humans resembled chimpanzees or monkeys. Their bodies were fully covered With furs and the head relatively small compared to the size of their body, They walked using both hands and feet, so they could not carry tools for a long time. As time went on, they began sharpening the stones and carving them to get the different shapes they wanted. Figure 1 Shows an Early Stone Age human Sharpening and carving stone tools. This enabled them to find small or sharp pieces that matched their goals.
Figure 1: The Early Stone Age man making stone tools

Figure 2 shows the shapes of some of the Early Stone Age tools.

The archaeological remains of the Early Stone tools have been discovered in many parts of Tanzania. Some of these areas are the Olduvai Gorge in Arusha Region, Figure 3 shows some Of the historical sites with fossils and the earliest drawings.

Figure 3: Some historical sites with archaeological remains of the Stone Age and cave paintings

Similarly, there are remains of the old cave paintings made by the early humans in various places in Tanzania The paintings are present todate in the Kondoa caves as shown on map in figure 4. It is thought that the drawings served different purposes, including teaching children and young people important issues in the society. For example, the drawings depicted hunting tools, hunting techniques and animal species in their environment. Figure 4 shows some of the early cave paintings in Tanzania.


Figure 4; Some Of the cave paintings in Kondoa-Irangj Tanzania


Answer the following questions:

1. Explain the basic differences between the early humans and other animals,

2. How did humans benefit from their body being covered with fur?

3.How do the remains of the early stone tools help you learn about. human life?

4. Identify the types of early paintings found in caves in Tanzania.

The Middle Stone Age

This period lasted from about 300 000 years ago to 50 000 years ago and it was marked by dramatic changes in human life. First, humans improved to walk on their feet. They continued to use hands to make, pick up and hold things as well as use tools. These changes came along with other important physiological changes including the ability to think and do different things. For example, unlike the four-limbed chimpanzee, the physiological changes enabled the early humans to continue walking vertically on two legs. Thus, they could see prey and enemies from a distance compared to when walking on four limbs- Similarly, they increased their ability to think, thus being able to adapt to their environment. Figure 5 shows how the human body or posture has evolved since they started walking on foot.


Figure 5: Various stages of human evolution from primates to modern human

Second, the skills and speed of making tools increased. At this point, the early human beings developed and mastered many kinds of tools. The tools got better, more stable and more task specific. Examples of the Middle Stone Age tools include arrows, bows, knives and axes- During this time, humans also began to wear the animal skins and tree barks that were crushed and softened. They, however, continued with nomadic life because they had no permanent settlement, Figure 6 shows examples of the Middle Stone Age tools.

Fig. 6 Some middle stone age tools

Discovery Of Fire

By the end of the Middle Stone Age, when human improved their stone tools, they discovered fire. Fire emerged when stones were crushed and rubbed against each other in the process of sharpening and shaping. The process produced sparks and fire was made. Over time, humans developed various skills and techniques for making fire. One of the methods was to chop two dry Sticks, one serving as a Skewer, which is called ulindi and the Other was a sliced piece called uwimbombo. Figure 7 shows how fire was made during the Middle Agesimage


Figure 7: The early human making fire by skewering the dry wood

The importance of the discovery and use of fire

Discovery and use Of fire brought great progress in human life, For example, humans began to roast meat arid Other types Of food Stuff to make them soft before eating, instead of eating them raw. They also burnt grass to clear the environment and chase away the dangerous wild animals. During the Middle Stone Age. humans lived in caves. Thus, fire enabled them to light up and warm inside the caves, la addition, the discovery and use Of fire enabled them to survive in the cold parts of the world. Later, fire helped to make glue, Which was used to tighten the heads Of arrows or handles Of spears

Answer the following questions:

1. Mention and explain the advantages of humans walking on two legs.

2 Explain the benefits of the discovery of fire at the end of the Middle Stone Age.

The Late Stone Age

This period lasted from 50000 years ago to 3500 BCE, The period was accompanied by the making of better tools than those used during the Middle Stone Age, The tools Of this era had specific functions such as skinning and cultivating, Figure 8 shows some examples of such tools,

Figure e: The Late Stone Age tools

Furthermore. humans began to put handles on some of their stone tools such as axes, spears and arrows. Handles enabled them to use the tools more efficiently than with those without handles. Figure 9 shows a human being carrying tools with handles.


Figure 9: Some of the Late Stone Age tools with handles

The Late Stone Age settlements have been discovered in various caves along rivers and lakes, The settlements show remains Of tools such as big rounded stones for cereal grinding, animal traps and large animal bones Of elephants and giraffes. It is believed that the animals were hunted with wooden arrows.

The onset Of pastoralism

The presence of different and better tools during the Late Stone Age enabled humans to perform various tasks that helped them to adapt to their environment. Among the successes of the Late Stone Age tools was the introduction of animal husbandry and bird keeping in human habitats. Those activities increased humans' access to food and clothing because they easily got meat. skin and milk. In addition, dog was one of the first animals to be domesticated by the early humans. Thus, pastoralism reduced human dependence on wildlife and wild birds for their livelihood.

The beginning of agriculture
One of the results of pastoralism at the end of the Last Stone Age was the establishment of permanent settlements. Humans would go to the wild searching for food then returning to their homes. Having permanent settlement encouraged the growing of food crops around the habitats. The introduction of animal husbandry and crop cultivation was. therefore, one Of the most revolutionary events in human life. Some of the impacts of agricultural and pastoral revolutions in human development by the end of the Late Stone Age include:

(i) Human beings were able to get enough food and surplus, Thus, they stopped spending too much time on hunting and gathering of animals, birds, roots, and fruits;

(ii) Because they were assured Of food provision, reproduction increased and this stimulated population growth;

(iii) Living together encouraged the emergence of language as an important tool for communication among community members;

(iv) Increase in population resulted in cooperation which Stimulated the emergence of leadership in the respective communities:

(v) Adequate food supply gave early humans ample time to spend on art and crafts, Such as, pottery, blacksmithing, sculpture and weaving,

(vi) This marked the beginning Of the division Of labor based on sex and age group such as the youth and the elderly; and

(vii) Communities began to have various productive groups such as fishermen, farmers, potters, sculptors, blacksmiths, weavers and herders. This Situation enabled community members to exchange goods to meet demand on the product they did not produce. This marked the beginning Of trade among community members and the surrounding community.

Comparison of developments in the Stone Age periods

In each phase Of the Stone Age, humans undertook important stages of development. This depended heavily on their ability to adapt to the environment to improve their lives and their ability to reason. Reasoning ability increased as they adapted to their environment and interacted with other human beings. The following table compares the differences in the levels of human development in the Early, Middle and Late Stone Age.

The Early Stone Age

The Middle Stone Age

The Late Stone Age

1 Humans began to make and use tools- The tools were crude, scarce and for temporary use. This marked the beginning of human history.

2, Humans practiced nom adiG life whereby they moved long distances in search for food and shelter.

3 r They lived in caves, forests and along river valleys.

4, They obtained food by digging edible roots, picking up fruits, catching insects, hunting birds, animals and collecting eggs.

Humans improve to walk on legs.

2. They made better and different stone tools.

3. They discovered haw make fire,

4. They made clothes by softening animal skin and crushing tree barks.

1. Humans made better stone tools for specific

2. They started animal husbandry and food Crop cultivation.

3, They established permanent settlements.

4, Division of work was based on gender, age and the ability of people.

5, Artists and artisans began to emerge among the community m embers.


Answer the following questions:

1 . Briefly explain the relationship between domestication of animals and the establishment of permanent settlements in the Late Stone Age.

2. Explain how agriculture changed human life.

3. Outline reasons as to why the late stone humans exchanged goods that they produced.

The Iron Age

The Late Stone Age was followed by the Iron Age. This era began 3 500 years BCE and continues to this day, It was during this era that human beings discovered iron and made tools. The soil containing ore was heated to high temperatures until molten metal and slag was produced. The molten metal collected in special containers and later cooled, coagulated and moulded to make iron tools. Figure 10 shows blacksmiths in the process of making iron tools.


Figure 10; Blacksmiths in the process of making iron tools

Types Of iron tools and their uses

Iron tools were stronger, better and more durable than Stone Age tools. Some Of the tools that were made included axes for cutting down trees, chopping meat and for security. Other tools were spears for hunting and for protection from enemies. Arrows were used to hunt large and small animals and birds. In addition, Sickles were made for pruning and clearing areas for Cultivating and planting various crops. Also, knives were made for slaughtering animals and cutting meat. Moreover, hoes were made for digging the farms roots and soil to trace moles. Some of these tools are shown in Figures 11 (a) and 11 (b)

Figure 11(a) Some old iron tools without handles
Figure 11(b) Some old iron tools with handles

Iron too IS had a lot Of benefits for the early human being. Some Of the benefits include:

(a) Expanding agricultural activities

The effectiveness of iron tools enabled humans to expand agriculture by slashing bushes, cultivating land and planting crops in larger areas- In addition, people began raising livestock such as cattle, goats and sheep as well as birds such as chickens and ducks.

(b) Population growth and community leadership

Agricultural expansion contributed to food security as humans were able to produce various kinds of crops. So, people became healthy, reproduced and reduced the premature deaths Of children caused by malnutrition, This situation led to the expansion of the community, hence, they need to introduce leadership system in the community.

(c) Emergence of artisans and artists

Having been assured of food, people had extra time to do other works. Thus. craftsmen and artisans emerged Who produced working tools that were used by producers. For example, potters made pots and jars. Another group include weavers Who made mats and baskets for household uses. Figures 12 and 13 show weavers and potters at work.


Figure 12: Weavers making various tools


Figure 13: Early Potters moulding pots with clay soil

Similarly. there emerged artisans who made farmers' hoes, spears and knives for hunters and milling tools for various household uses. Figure 14 shows the early sculptors at work.


Figure 14: Early sculptors carving various fools

(d) Emergence of the division of labour and responsibilities in the household and in the society. The increase in productive activities in the household stimulated the need for division Of labour based on gender, age and peer groups. Men, performed difficult tasks such as hunting, clearing fields, cultivating, and protecting families or communities- Women, on the other hand, performed household chores such as cooking raising children and caring for the elderly and the sick. Girls helped their mothers while boys grazed animals and helped their fathers.

(e) The beginning Of the exchange Of goods

Surplus production of different types of goods and farm produce within and outside communities stimulated the need for exchange Of goods to meet their own needs, This was the beginning of a community-based trading, Figure 15 shows community members in the market.


Figure 15: Early people in the market

(f) Cultural change

Developments resulting from the use of iron tools contributed to the changes in the culture Of the respective communities, especially changes in dressing and language.

(i) Clothing

Early humans improved leather and bark Clothes and they better covered and adorned themselves. They also protected themselves from the cold. In some communities the artisans crushed and softened the barks Of special trees and made clothes for the community members. Figure 16 shows the early ruler and his bodyguards wearing leather and bark clothes- This improved human clothing different from the previous eras.


Figure 16: Leather and bark clothes used by the early Tanzanian communities

(ii) Language

As communities expanded and relationships improved, different languages emerged to facilitate communication. Similarly, exchange of goods led to the emergence and growth Of various languages,

The Digital Technological Age

so far, we have seen the Changes Of human development linked to the development of too s that enabled them to work and produce wealth. We have seen the Stone Age during which humans made tools out Of stone and used them for various activities. The period was divided into three namely, the Early Stone Age, the Middle Stone Age and the Late Stone Age. The second era is the Iron Age during which humans improved the tools that contributed to the improvement Of their lives.

This section covers the third era called the Digital Technological Age, This is the era of soft, fast and complex technologies in human history. It is also considered as an improved Iron Age marked by the invention Of computer and making of various machines which include industrial machineries and automotive engines such as trains, ships, aircraft, tractors and office machines to simplify work- The Digital Technological Age has given humans the ability to produce large quantities of goods in a very short time. It has also facilitated transportation. This age Of machines and digital technology has made it easier for humans to do things, The age of machines and computer has enabled humankind to discover many various kinds of modern technologies. Figure 17 illustrates the modern agricultural activity that uses a tractor ,


Figure 17; Modern farming using tractor

The benefits of tractor farming include ploughing a large area sowing large amount Of seeds ill rows, harvesting large Sizes Of crops quickly and, thus r saving time. Ploughing using a tractor, however, has serious disadvantages that include land compaction and high levels Of smoke in the air. Mechanized farming. thus. contributes to land pollution and environmental degradation.

Modern production tools

Despite the Of modem technology, today there are numerous types of production tools that are used differently and with different functions. Examples Of such tools are hand tools and those pulled by animals,

(a) Manually operated tools

This group includes common tools such as machetes, axes, hoes, hammers and saws. These tools have strengths and weaknesses. One advantage of the tools is that they are affordable in terms of cost and are easy to use. However, the shortcomings include their slow performance. For example, cultivating a field with a hand hoe takes longer and the farmer becomes exhausted. Similarly, cutting down trees with a normal saw is tedious and time consuming, This is different from cutting down trees using a chainsaw that uses liquid fuel such as petrol or diesel. Figures 18 and 19 present the types Of saws.


Figure 18: Common hand saw


Figure 19: Chainsaw

(b) Animal pulled tools

These tools include ploughs, carts and wheelbarrows. The use of these tools is extensive and has many advantages. For example, a plough is used for ploughing, a cart is used for carrying goods and people and a wheelbarrow is used to carry things. Figure 20 shows a person transporting pineapples in a donkey-pulled cart,


Figure 20: Donkey and caft used for work

There are various limitations in using these tools. The limitations include carrying fewer goods compared to those carried by trucks. Similarly, animals become tired, especially when they carry heavier loads than their ability. Owners of these animals usually beat them up to make them walk faster or pull the load harder, an act that is contrary to animal rights.

Advantages and disadvantages of using modern tools

As we have seen above, the use of modern tools has both positive and negative effects. The following table provides more explanations:


  1. They are easy to find and use.
  2. They are cheap
  3. Easy to maintain


  1. Little work is done
  2. Users get very tired.
  3. Me is produced


  1. Simplify load-carrying functions.
  2. Facilitate cultivation. planting and harvest­ing.
  3. Facilitate transport and transportation of people and goods.


  1. They have better carrying capacity of goods than humans but not the same as that of cars or trucks.
  2. Animals get tired and suffer.
  3. The owner has to keep supervising the animals at work.


  1. Work faster with right standards.
  2. Save time.
  3. Mass production of goods in a short time


  1. Contribute to air and soil pollution.
  2. Cause soil compaction.
  3. Damage natural vegetation and water sources.


Fossils the Old remains Of animals, Plants or artifacts that can be excavated for archaeological and heritage purposes

Special something unique or specific


Answer the following questions:

1.Briefly describe the features that distinguish humans from chimpanzees.

2. Write TRUE for a correct statement and FALSE for an incorrect statement in the space provided. then give reasons.

  1. During the Early Stone Age the human was lonely.
  2. Reasons: ____________________
  3. The Early Stone Age tools were durable and used for a long time.
  4. Reasons: ___________________
  5. During the Early Stone Age humans and chimpanzees were almost similar.
  6. Reasons: __________________
  7. The early paintings in the caves are full of historical teachings.
  8. Reasons: ______________________________

3. Mention four benefits that the early societies had for having artisans and artists.

4. Choose the most correct answer and then write its letter in the box provided.

(i) Humans started to walk straight during the Stone Age

  1. Middle
  2. Old
  3. Iron
  4. Late

(ii) Humans discovered fire by skewering a dry piece of stick on a dry wood: the two tools were known as:

  1. miliki and uwimbombo
  2. ulindi and mnazi
  3. mwanzi and ulindi
  4. uwimbombo and ulindi

(iii) During the Early Stone Age, human beings got food by:

  1. cultivating food crops
  2. raising animals and birds
  3. picking up fruit, hunting animals and digging roots
  4. fishing marine fish

(iv) The first animals to be domesticated by humans were:

  1. cattle
  2. cats
  3. dogs
  4. goats

5. Fill in the table the positive and negative points of using cars and motorcycles in transport and transportation.

Positive points of using cars and motorcycles Negative points of using motorcycles and cars
  1. Travels fast and saves time.
  1. Engine smoke pollutes the air

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