CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING THINGS.
KEY TERMS AND CONCEPTS.
Conifers- Plants whose seeds are not enclosed in ovaries
Gymnosperms- these are cone bearing plants
Resins- chemical produced by conifers and help it defend itself from fungal and insects
Monocots- are types of angiosperms which has one cotyledon/seed leaf
Dicots- are types of angiosperms with two cotyledons/seed leaf
Biennals- these are angiosperms which grows in seasons
Perennials- are plants which live for many years
Consists of green plants capable of making own food. It is divided into four divisions;
General and distinctive features of conifers
Are cone bearing plants
They contain xylem and phloem
They bear seeds
Sexual reproduction is well defined and most are terrestrial
They have well define root system, stems and leaves
They have naked seeds
They lack flowers
Examples include the pines, cedar juniper tree and spruce.
Fig. 1.1 Conifers
They have needle like leaves and are cone bearing
They have male and female cones on the same plant
They have thick and scarly barks and lack flowers and fruits
The male cones produce pollen which is transferred by wind to the female cone, which has ovules containing female gametes.
Fertilization occurs when the pollen meets the ovules.
Advantages of division coniferophyta.
They are good source of timber
They are a source of food for insects
Pines are source of useful chemical substances such as resins used as turpentine
They are also ornamental plants sometimes grown for beautification
Disadvantages of coniferophyta
Pines have extensive roots that dry up the soil affecting growth of other plants
The needle like leaves can prick and cause pain and injury
General distinctive features.
They are flowering plants, majority of them terrestrial
Fertilization is preceded by growth of pollen tube
Have well developed root system, stem and leaves
Their seeds are protected by ovary
Vascular bundle is well developed
It has two classes; monocotyledonae and dicotyledonae
This includes plants like maize, sugarcane, wheat, millet, sisal and banana
They have the following characteristics;
Leaves are long and narrow
The leaves have parallel venation
They have fibrous root system
The seed embryo has one cotyledon
The stem has no pith
The floral parts are in three or multiples of three
They lack vascular cambium
Each leaf has a sheath that supports it on the stem
They include plants like, beans, mangoes, black jack, jacaranda, coffee, and eucalyptus
They show the following characteristics.
The leaves are broad and rounded
The leaves have a network venation
They have tap-roots system
Embryo has two cotyledon
Has pith in its stems
The floral parts are in four or five or multiples of these
The vascular cambium is present in both roots and stems, thus has secondary growth
Each leaf has petiole that supports it on the stem
Advantages of division angiospermophyta
They are major source of human food
They are a source of timber and wood
Some have medicinal value
They are grown for beautification and shades in homes
They act as wind breakers and in reduction of soil erosion.
Disadvantages of division angiospermophyta.
Angiosperms are poisonous
Some have thorns that prick to cause injury and others are weeds to crops.
Table 1.1 Differences between monocots and dicots.
END OF TOPIC QUESTIONS.
(a) Describe the major type of classification
(b) Work out the distinctive features of the coniferophyta division.
2. (i) What is classification?
(ii) State three distinctive features of the kingdom plantae
(iii) What is meant by the term “Sporophyte”.
(iv) With one example each list six phylum belong to the kingdom protoctista.
3. a) Mention the names of two classes under the Angiospermophyta Division.
b) In question 6(a) above outline the distinctive a features of the two classes mentioned.
a) Mention the name of a shrub or tree that bear cones.
b) Draw to scale two comes – one male and the other female of a named tree.
i) What cone is much large? Give reasons.
(ii) Why at maturity the male can produces yellow powder? Mention the biological terminology used to denote the yellow powder.
Work out an essay on distinctive features of members under the coniferophyta division by using the following guidelines.
Seeds are naked.
6. How does monocotyledon differ from dicotyledonous plants? (2mrks @)
7. Outline the four(4) divisions founded in kingdom plantae.
8. What are four (4) distinctive characteristics of pines.
9. What are the economic importance of Angiosperms.
10. Explain the distinctive features of the division coniferophyta.
11. Draw a well labeled pine tree with its fruits.
12. What is the advantage of conifers having needlelike leaves
13. What are the characteristic differences between monocotyledonae and dicotyledonae classes.
Members of division coniferophyta have cones and needle- like leaves. They include conifers, pines, cedar and cypress.
Cone bearing plants are also called gymnosperms
Conifers reproduce at very high rate thus dwarfing the development of other plants
Division angiospermophyta has two classes namely; monocotyledonae and dicotyledonous.
Members of class monocotyledon, fibrous root system and leaves with parallel venation.
Members of class dicotyledonae have seeds with one cotyledon, tap root systems and leaves with netted venation.
Angiosperms provides food for most organisms in the environment
One disadvantage of angiosperm is that, they cannot withstand very harsh climatic conditions, which general destroys them.
TOPICAL EXAMINATION BIOS FORM THREE
Which of the following does not belong to kingdom plantae
Identify the wrong statement about monocots
Have paralle venation
Floral parts are in three or multiple of three
Lacks pith on the stem
Which statement is true about dicots?
Has one cotyledon
Has cambium in stem and roots
Floral parts are in four or six and their multiples
Leaves are narrow and flat
which of the following is not a distinguishing feature of pine?
Needle like leaves
Male and female parts on the same plant
Lack flowers and fruits
Their seeds are well covered
which of the following is a disadvantage of conifers?
Are source of timber
Are source fungus in soil
Add manure to the soil
Extensive root system affect other plants
which statement is true about monocot root and stem?
A. Vascular bundles forms a star shape
B. Have pericycle and cambium
C. BOTH has pith
D. In stem, the vascular bundle are scattered while in roots they form a ring.
7. Which of the following is not a dicot?
8. Which of the following is not an advantage of angiosperms?
A. They are source of food
B. Some have medicinal values
C. Acts as wind breakers
D. Sources of timber.
9. Which of the following is an characteristic of kingdom Plantae?
A. Have chloroplast
B. Have vascular bundles
C. All members can photosynthesize
D. They produce asexually
10. In dicot root, the vascular bundles are arranged in such a way that;
A. They form a ring
B. They are scattered
C. They form a star
D. They appear random
2. MATCHING ITEM QUESTIONS.
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3. Describe five distinctive features of kingdom plantae
4.a) Mention two members of division coniferophyta
b) State the distinctive features of conifers
5. a) Briefly explain how fertilization takes place in conifers
b) Outline the advantages and disadvantages of confers
6.Using well labeled diagrams, show the differences between monocots and dicots
Explain using diagrams the differences in the arrangement of vascular bundles in monocots and dicots
Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of division angiospermophyta.
9. a) What is alternation of generation?
b) Explain how alternation of generation takes place in bryophytes.
10.Write an essay on economic importance of kingdom plantae
QUESTIONS AND ANSWER SECTION.
Q (a) Mention four division of kingdom plantae
(b) Give member of i) Bryophyte
Differentiate between Bryophytes and filicinophyta
Define alternation of generation
What is generation?
Give advantages and disadvantages of conifers
A. Division of kingdom plantae
- Bryophytes are mosses, liverworts,
- filicinophytes are ferns
Bryophytes show alteration of generation in which the dominate spaces is gametophyte the dominant spaces is sporophyte.
Alternation of generation is existence of organism in two forms, which alternate to complete a life cycle
Characteristic of conifers
Most are trees with needle shaped leaves.
Reproductive structure is cone
Ovules are naked.
Dominant generation is sporophyte
Majority are evergreen
Found in areas with cool climate.
(f) Advantages and disadvantages of conifers
They are used for timber making soft wood
Used in building industry.
Useful in paper making.
Used as telegraph poles since they are long.
The timber is easily destroyed by termites
Cause displacement of natural vegetations and populations
Q a) Give the general features of angiospermatophyta.
b) Different between monocots and dicots
c) Give advantage of Angiosperms.
A Feature of angiosperms
Their reproductive structure are flowers.
Ovules are enclosed in ovary
They vary greatly in form size and habitat.
Have development root leaves and stems.
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(c ) Advantages of Angiosperms
Several are cultivated for timber- produce hard wood
Many plants have medicinal value
Are source of paper
Cotton is grown to make clothes
Are source of food
Beautifully the environment