1.0 CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING THINGS.


  •                  Conifers- Plants whose seeds are not enclosed in ovaries
  •                  Gymnosperms- these are cone bearing plants
  •                  Resins-chemical produced by conifers and help it defend itself from fungal and insects
  •                  Monocots- are types of angiosperms which has one cotyledon/seed leaf
  •                  Dicots- are types of angiosperms with two cotyledons/seed leaf
  •                  Biennals- these are angiosperms which grows in seasons
  •                  Perennials- are plants which live for many years


Consists of green plants capable of making own food. It is divided into four divisions;

  •                  Bryophyte
  •                  Pteridophyta
  •                  Coniferophyta
  •                  Angiospermophyta

1.2 Division coniferophyta-conifers

General and distinctive features of conifers

  •                  Are cone bearing plants
  •                  They contain xylem and phloem
  •                  They bear seeds
  •                  Sexual reproduction is well defined and most are terrestrial
  •                  They have well define root system, stems and leaves
  •                  They have naked seeds
  •                  They lack flowers

Examples include the pines, cedar juniper tree and spruce.

Picha inayohusiana

Fig. 1.1 Conifers

The pine

  • They have needle like leaves and are cone bearing
  • They have male and female cones on the same plant
  • They have thick and scaly barks and lack flowers and fruits
  • The male cones produce pollen which is transferred by wind to the female cone, which has ovules containing female gametes.
  •  Fertilization occurs when the pollen meets the ovules.

Advantages of division coniferophyta.

  •                    They are good source of timber
  •                    They are a source of food for insects
  •                    Pines are source of useful chemical substances such as resins used as turpentine
  •                    They are also ornamental plants sometimes grown for beautification

Disadvantages of coniferophyta

  •                    Pines have extensive roots that dry up the soil affecting growth of other plants
  •                    The needle like leaves can prick and cause pain and injury

1.3 Division Angiospermophyta

General distinctive features.

  •                    They are flowering plants, majority of them terrestrial
  •                    Fertilization is preceded by growth of pollen tube
  •                    Have well developed root system, stem and leaves
  •                    Their seeds are protected by ovary
  •                    Vascular bundle is well developed

It has two classes; monocotyledonae and dicotyledonae


This includes plants like maize, sugarcane, wheat, millet, sisal and banana

They have the following characteristics;

  •                    Leaves are long and narrow
  •                    The leaves have parallel venation
  •                    They have fibrous root system
  •                    The seed embryo has one cotyledon
  •                    The stem has no pith
  •                    The floral parts are in three or multiples of three
  •                    They lack vascular cambium
  •                    Each leaf has a sheath that supports it on the stem

Class dicotyledonae.

They include plants like, beans, mangoes, black jack, jacaranda, coffee, and eucalyptus

They show the following characteristics.

  •                    The leaves are broad and rounded
  •                    The leaves have a network venation
  •                    They have tap-roots system
  •                    Embryo has two cotyledons
  •                    Has pith in its stems
  •                    The floral parts are in four or five or multiples of these
  •                    The vascular cambium is present in both roots and stems, thus has secondary growth
  •                    Each leaf has petiole that supports it on the stem

Advantages of division angiospermophyta

  1.                  They are major source of human food
  2.                They are a source of timber and wood
  3.              Some have medicinal value
  4.              They are grown for beautification and shades in homes
  5.                They act as wind breakers and in reduction of soil erosion.

Disadvantages of division angiospermophyta.

  1.                  Angiosperms are poisonous
  2.                Some have thorns that prick to cause injury and others are weeds to crops.

Table 1.1 Differences between monocots and dicots.


  • Members of division coniferophyta have cones and needle- like leaves. They include  conifers,  pines, cedar and cypress.
  • Cone bearing plants are also called gymnosperms
  • Conifers reproduce at very high rate thus dwarfing the development of other plants
  • Division angiospermophyta has two classes namely; monocotyledonae and  dicotyledonous.
  • Members of class monocotyledon, fibrous root system and leaves with parallel  venation.
  • Members of class dicotyledonae have seeds with one cotyledon,  tap root systems  and leaves with netted venation.
  • Angiosperms provides food for most organisms in the environment
  • One disadvantage of angiosperm is that, they cannot withstand very harsh climatic  conditions, which general destroys them.


  1.    (a) Describe the major type of classification

(b) Work out the distinctive features of the coniferophyta division.

  2.     (i) What is classification?

(ii)   State three distinctive features of the kingdom plantae 

(iii)  What is meant by the term “Sporophyte”. 

(iv)  briefly explain the adaptations of plants into different environment.

3.      a) Mention the names of two classes under the Angiospermophyta Division.

         b) In question 3(a) above outline the distinctive a features of the two classes mentioned.

  1.                a) Mention the name of a shrub or tree that bear cones.

   b) Draw to scale two cones – one male and the other female of a named tree.

 ( i) What cone is much large? Give reasons.

 (ii) Why at maturity the male can produces yellow powder? Mention the biological terminology used to denote the yellow powder.

  1.                Work out an essay on distinctive features of members under the coniferophyta division by using the following guidelines.
  •         Cones
  •         Needlelike leaves
  •         Long trees
  •         Seeds are naked.

   6.        How does monocotyledon differ from dicotyledonous plants?         







7.   Outline the four (4) divisions founded in kingdom Plantae.

8.  What are four (4) distinctive characteristics of pines? 

9.  What are the economic importance of Angiosperms. 

10. Explain the distinctive features of the division coniferophyta.

11. Draw a well labeled pine tree with its fruits.

12. What is the advantage of conifers having needlelike leaves

13. What are the characteristic differences between monocotyledonae and         dicotyledonae classes?




  1.                Which of the following does not belong to kingdom plantae
  1.               Bryophytes
  2.                Pteridophytes
  3.                Basidiomycotes
  4.               Angiospermaphytes
  1.                Identify the wrong statement about monocots
  1.               Have taproots
  2.                Have parallel venation
  3.                Floral parts are in three or multiple of three
  4.               Lacks pith on the stem
  1.                Which statement is true about dicots?
  1.                   Has one cotyledon
  2.                   Has cambium in stem and roots
  3.                   Floral parts are in four or six and their multiples
  4.                  Leaves are narrow and flat
  1.                Which of the following is not a distinguishing feature of pine?
  1.  leaves
  2.                Male and female parts on the same plant
  3.                Lack flowers and fruits
  4.               Their seeds are well covered
  1.                Which of the following is a disadvantage of conifers?
  1.               Are source of timber
  2.                Are source fungus in soil
  3.                Add manure to the soil
  4.               Extensive root system affect other plants
  1.                Which statement is true about monocot root and stem?

A.  Vascular bundles forms a star shape

B.  Have pericycle and cambium

C.  BOTH has pith

D.  In stem, the vascular bundle are scattered while in roots they form a ring.

7. Which of the following is not a dicot?

A.  Banana

B.  Coffee

C.  Tea

D.  Eucalyptus

8. Which of the following is not an advantage of angiosperms?

A.  They are source of food

B.  Some have medicinal values

C.  Acts as wind breakers

D.  Sources of timber.

9. Which of the following is an characteristic of kingdom Plantae?

A.  Have chloroplast

B.  Have vascular bundles

C.  All members can photosynthesize

D.  They produce asexually

10. In dicot root, the vascular bundles are arranged in such a way that;

A.  They form a ring

B.  They are scattered

C.   They form a star

D.  They appear random




  1.             Dominant species in bryophyte
  2.             Green pigment responsible for photosynthesis
  3.             Xylem and phloem
  4.             One cotyledon
  5.             Two cotyledons
  6.             Roots used for support in monocots
  7.             Xylem and phloem alternate
  8.             Flower bearing plants
  9.             Cone bearing plants
  10.             Contain cambium
  1.               Dicot root
  2.                Dicot root and stem
  3.                Monocotyledon
  4.               Dicotyledon
  5.                Vascular bundles
  6.                Prop roots
  7.                Adventitious roots
  8.               Conipherophyta
  9.                  Angiospermophytes
  10.                  Monocot root
  11.               Monocot stem
  12.                Sporophyte
  13.              Gametophyte
  14.               Chlorophyll
  15.               Chloroplast.


3. Describe five distinctive features of kingdom plantae

4.  a) Mention two members of division coniferophyta

     b) State the distinctive features of conifers

5.  a) Briefly explain how fertilization takes place in conifers

     b) Outline the advantages and disadvantages of confers

6. Using well labeled diagrams, show the differences between monocots and dicots

  1.                Explain using diagrams the differences in the arrangement of vascular bundles in monocots and dicots
  1.                Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of division angiospermophyta.

9.  a) What is alternation of generation?

     b)    Explain how alternation of generation takes place in bryophytes.

10. Write an essay on economic importance of kingdom plantae


Q. 1. (a) Mention four division of kingdom plantae

(b) Give member of

 i) Bryophyte

ii) Filicinophyta

2. Differentiate between Bryophytes and filicinophyta

3. Define alternation of generation

4. What are characteristics of conifers?   

5. Give advantages and disadvantages of conifers

A. 1. a) Division of kingdom plantae

  •                  Bryophyte
  •                  Coniferophta 
  •                  Filicinophyta
  •                  Angiospermaphyta

b) - Bryophytes are mosses, liverworts,

      - Filicinophytes are ferns

  1.    Bryophytes show alteration of generation in which the dominate spaces is gametophyte the dominant spaces is sporophyte.
  2.  Alternation of generation is existence of organism in two forms, which alternate to complete a life cycle

  1.    Characteristic of conifers
  •                   Most are trees with needle shaped leaves.
  •                   Reproductive structure is cone
  •                   Ovules are naked.
  •                   Dominant generation is sporophyte
  •                   Majority are evergreen
  •                   Found in areas with cool climate.

(f) Advantages and disadvantages of conifers

  •                      They are used for timber making soft wood
  •                      Used in building industry.
  •                      Useful in paper making.
  •                      Used as telegraph poles since they are long.
  •                      The timber is easily destroyed by termites
  •                      Cause displacement of natural vegetation and populations

Q a) Give the general features of   angiospermatophyta. 

b) Different between monocots and dicots

c) Give advantage of Angiosperms.

  •            A Feature of angiosperms
  •                   Their reproductive structure  are flowers.
  •                   Ovules are enclosed in ovary
  •                   They vary greatly in form size and habitat.
  •                   Have development root leaves and stems.
  1.                                     (b)              



  1.           Have fibrious root system
  2.         Have leaves with parallel Venations
  3.       Floral parts are in 3 or multiples of three.
  4.       Vascular bundles are scattered in stem 
  1.             Have tap root system.
  2.          Leave have net venation
  3.        Floral parts are in four or five or their multiples.
  4.        Vascular bundles are arranged to form a ring.

(c ) Advantages of Angiosperms

  •                 Several are cultivated for timber- produce hard wood
  •                 Many plants have medicinal value
  •                 Are source of paper
  •                 Cotton is grown to make clothes
  •                 Are source of food
  •                 Beautify the environment

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