INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICS

CONCEPT OF PHYSICS

By the end of this topic, the student should be able to;

  1. Explain the concept of physics
  2. Establish the relationship between physics and other subjects
  3. State the importance of studying physics
  4. Explain the application of physics in daily life
  5. Apply physics in daily life.

 

KET TERMS AND CONCEPTS.

  • Physics- The study of matter into relation to energy.
  • Technology- This is applications of science to solve problems and make life easier.
  • Science- This is scientific study of nature.
  • Physicist- Is a person who studies physics
  • Mechanics- this is the study of motion under the influence of pressure
  • Thermodynamics- This is the study of transfer of heat from one place to another.
  • Atomic physics- This is the study of particles of nucleus and accompanying changes.
  •  

 Physics is the study of the relationship between  matter  and  energy.  The  people who study physics is called physicists

 Science  is  the  scientific  study  of nature.  For Example, how  cooling  effect occur

Technology

Technology is the application of science. For Example, cooling effect uses in refrigerator to cool different items.

In  Medicine.
X-rays, lasers, scanners which are applications of physics are used in diagnosis and treatment of diseases.

Communication

Satellite communication, internet, fibre optics are applications of internet which requires strong foundation in physics.

In industrial Applications

In the area of defense, physics has many applications e.g. war planes, laser-guided bombs which have high level accuracy.

In entrainment industry, knowledge of physics has use in mixing various colours to bring out the desirable stage effects

Branches of physics.

Physics as a subject is divided into six broad branches as discussed below.

i) Mechanics
This branch deals majorly with motions under the influence of forces. Under this branch, we look into details the aspects of linear, circular and oscillatory motions as well as motion of fluids

ii) Geometrical Optics

This branch takes a keen look at the behavior of light in various media.

iii) Electricity and magnetism
This branch looks at the interaction between electric fields and magnetic fields and the applications of such interactions.

iv) Thermodynamics
This branch looks at how heat as a form of energy is transformed to/from other forms of energy.

v) Atomic Physics
This area of study is targeted at the behavior of particles of the nucleus and the accompanying energy changes.

vi) Waves
It deals with the study of the propagation of energy through space.

Relationship between Physics and Other Subject

Physics is the fundamental subject which other subject uses application of physics; the following is the relation with other subjects

i. Chemistry

Composition and decomposing of matter involves energy. For Example,

  • Cooking stoves, fuel burn to leased heat energy
  • Insect killers and Perfumes packed in container by compressed which comes out with high pressure
  • Fertilizer when they syntheses the heat energy should involved.
  • When tea and other food cooked the heat energy should involved

ii. Biology

Since biology is the scientific subject, which involves living and non-living things, which may be micro and macro organism, it uses application of physics. For Example,

i. Microscope which made by physicist is used to observe micro organism

ii. Syringe is based on pressure

iii. Mathematics

Physicist should master mathematics because physics problems may involve calculation

iv. Astronomy

Astronomy is the scientific study of universe. Universe is composed of moon, sun, stars, comets, planets etc. It uses different instruments to study the universe which are made by physicists. For Example,

         Periscope and telescope are used to observe distant objects like stars

         Material used to build the space like satellite are determined by physicists

v. Geography

Geography is the study of man and his environment. It includes soil, rainfall, mountains etc. it uses application of physics, for Example,

            Many instruments like rain gauge, wind vane are developed by physicist

            Barometer which is used to measure the atmospheric pressure is made by physicist.

            Formation of soil and rocks are explained by physics.

Applications of Physics in Real Life

Physics influence our lives as follows aspects.

1. At home

They include

  • All tools and machinery: Such as Crowbars, Hammers, door handles, cutlery, hinges, car jack, pulleys, tillage implements e.t.c are made by knowledge of physics
  • Electrical appliances: such as cooker, iron, heater, electric lamps, washing machine are made by knowledge of physics

 

2. Medical field

They include;

  • Machines such laser, x-ray, incubators, ultrasound and infrared machines
  • The knowledge used in handling and even actual use of these machines are based on the knowledge and skills acquired in Physics.

3. Source of energy

They include;

  •       Batteries and generators provide electrical energy
  •       Bulbs which  they provide light energy
  •       Speaker gives us sound energy

 

  1. Transport

All Vessels used in transportation is results of concept of physics. For Example, cars, ships, aeroplane, trains.

  1. Communication- Most of communication devices such as phones, radios and television are made by application of physics knowledge.

All Devices used in communication systems is results of concept of physics. For Example, telephones, modems, television, cables etc

  1. Entertainment

Physics enable people to enjoy a variety of  leisure activities as is evident in photography, digital appliances, exercise machines and other sport equipment.

  1. Industry

Physicists have been able to come up with tools and process that have resulted in advanced technological equipment and new discoveries.

  1. In schools

The instruments and apparatus used in school laboratories are made through the application of the knowledge and skill acquired in a Physics class.

Importance of Learning Physics

Physics - the study of matter, energy and their interactions - is an international enterprise, which plays a key role in the future progress of humankind. The support of physics education and research in all countries is important because:

  1. Physics is an exciting intellectual adventure that inspires young people and expands the frontiers of our knowledge about Nature.
  2. Physics generates fundamental knowledge needed for the future technological advances that will continue to drive the economic engines of the world.
  3. Physics contributes to the technological infrastructure and provides trained personnel needed to take advantage of scientific advances and discoveries.
  4. Physics is an important element in the education of chemists, engineers and computer scientists, as well as practitioners of the other physical and biomedical sciences.
  5. Physics extends and enhances our understanding of other disciplines, such as the earth, agricultural, chemical, biological, and environmental sciences, plus astrophysics and cosmology - subjects of substantial importance to all peoples of the world.
  6. Physics improves our quality of life by providing the basic understanding necessary for developing new instrumentation and techniques for medical applications, such as computer tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, ultrasonic imaging, and laser surgery.
  7. The study of physics enables us to answer many question concerning physical properties of matter.
  8. Enable different people to acquire skills that are required in different professions. For Example, engineering, teaching and architecture.
  9. Enable us to designing  and   manufacture different  items, this includes, dry cell, simple machines, mobile phones.
  10. Enable us to enjoy since we study practically.

In summary, for all these reasons, physics is an essential part of the educational system and of an advanced society. We therefore urge all governments to seek advice from physicists and other scientists on matters of science policy, and to be supportive of the science of Physics. This support can take many forms such as:

  • National programs to improve physics teaching at all levels of the educational system.
  • Building and maintaining strong departments in universities (and other academic institutions) with opportunities for grants to support research.
  • Scholarships and fellowships for both undergraduate and graduate students studying physics.
  • Adequate funding for national laboratories and the formation of new ones as appropriate.
  • Funding and facilitating international activities and collaborations.

SUMMARY.

  • Physics- This is the study of matter in relation to energy
  • Science- This is the scientific study of nature.
  • Technology- This the application of science in life
  • Physics is applied in medicine, in technology, in communication, in the industry etc
  • The main branches of physics includes, mechanics, geometry, optics, electricity and magnetism, atomic physics, and waves among other.
  • Physics is related to chemistry, biology, geography, mathematics and geography.
  • The knowledge of physics is applied at home, at schools, in medicine, in transport, production of energy, and entertainment.
  • Through the study of physics, one can become an engineer, a physicist, a doctor, an architecture etc.

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TOPICAL QUESTIONS: FORM ONE.

INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICS:

SECTION A:

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS.

1. For each of the item below, choose the correct answer from among the given alternatives and write its letter beside the item number.

(i)              The branch of science which deals with the study of the relationship between matter and energy is:-

  1.        Civics
  2. Chemistry
  3. Pshology
  4. Physics

 (ii) Physicist is a person whose occupation specializes in the science of:-

  1. Biology
  2. Physics
  3. Mathematics
  4. Chemistry

 (iii) Matter is________________

  1. Anything which has got mass and occupy a space.
  2. Anything which contains mass and volume
  3. Scientific study of energy.
  4. A science which deals with the study of nature and physical properties.

 (iv) The ability or capacity of doing work is known as:

  1. Mass
  2. Matter
  3. Pressure.
  4. Energy.

 (v) The following is the fundamental subjects which other subjects use its application.

  1. Physics
  2. Chemistry
  3. Biology
  4. Mathematics.

 

2. Complete each the following statement by writing the correct answer in the space provided.

(i)     __________ is a scientific study of matter in relation to energy.

(ii)  Energy is ability or capacity of doing________________

(iii) _______________ is anything which has got mass and occupies a space.

(iv) There are _______________ states of matter.

(v)   A person who study Physics is called_______________

3. Define the following terms.

(i)     Physics

(ii)  Physicist

(iii) Science

(iv) Technology

4. List any three importance of studying Physics.

5. List any five areas where Physics is applied in real life.

6. Mention five subjects which relates with Physics.

 

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