HISTORY FORM ONE TOPIC 1:
By the end of this topic. The student be able to;
a) Explain the meaning of History.
b) Explain the importance of studying History.
a) Identify sources of history
b) Assess the functions, advantages and limitations of Oral Traditions
c) Assess the functions, advantages and limitations of Historical Sites
d) Describe the functions, advantages and limitations of Written Records
e) Assess the functions, advantages and limitations of Archives
f) Assess the functions, advantages and limitations of Museums
g) Describe the functions, advantages and limitations of Archaeology
History is the study of man and his activities in different times. These activities enable man to obtain his needs. Man’s basic needs are food, cloths, and shelter
In general, history can also refer to an academic discipline, which uses a narrative to examine and analyze the sequences of past events, and objectively determine the patterns of cause and effect that determine them. It is the record of human activities, which enable man to survival and attain essential needs from the environment.
Importance Of Studying History.
Understand how African societies were formed, how they developed and the factors that influenced this development.
It also allows us to develop an understanding of the events, conditions and factors that shaped the past and those, which have shaped the present conditions of the world in order to predict the future.
Historical knowledge makes the present comprehensive, which is why journalists and writers of sensational stories spend some time explaining the history of a particular incident; it is only when one knows the past of a person or an incident that the present can became meaningful.
Develop an understanding and appreciation of the cultural, political, economic and technological advancements made by African societies before and after colonial rulers.
Develop the basic skills of critical thinking, reasoning, judgment, empathy and effective participation in human developmental activities.
Studying history also helps us to understand and appreciate the efforts made and strategies used by African people to regain their independence and resist neo-colonialism
Develop, understand and appreciation the need for African unity, cooperation and interdependence, conflict resolution and effective participation in social, economic and political development of Africa.
It also helps us to develop an understanding of the relationships between African’s development problems and foreign intrusion, colonial domination, cultural subjugation and economic exploitation at various stages in history.
-Acquire knowledge for its own sake as you enjoy a novel with fiction, a film with an interesting plot. It is not clear why people are interested in these ventures and in the same way, people do enjoy to know the history of particular topics.
Develop our patriotism, history students know their heroes and heroes and traitors. This makes history a sensitive subject in places where political leaders are not sure of their legitimacy.
Enlightens people about the advantages of certain economic practices for example, the way the development in the world today is measured by the industrial revolution that took place in Europe in 1750.
Understand the level of development at different stages of human development. Without history, it is very difficult to determine or to tell what humans were doing in the past.
Helps us learn about technological transformations, for example primitive livelihood to advanced livelihood (using of stones and wood tools to iron tools)
Understand how humans adapted to their environment and how the struggled to earn a living from the environment. This therefore looks at the long struggle of man by exercises of his reason -to understand the environment and to act up on it.
Understand the relationship that existed between humans, and between humans and the environment.
Acquire skills in historical issues and becoming professionals in history, some people such as archaeologists and historians study history for career purposes.
Sources of History
Refers to the avenues that can be used to get historical information. It requires inter-disciplinary Sources of history approach in order to get the actual historical information.
Therefore, the following are sources of history/historical knowledge:
This involves the passing information by word of mouth through talking and listening. Oral tradition passes historical information into two ways
a) Through culture practices like art, music, religion, riddles, songs, proverbs, superstition, poems and stories.
b) Narration of past events.
Function of Oral Tradition
Advantages of Oral Tradition
Disadvantages of Oral Tradition
3. Historical Sites:
Are special places where by the past human remains can be found and shown to the public. It is a place where the remains of once lived human in the past can be found.
Examples of historical sites in Tanzania include Isimila, Olduvai George, Kondoa Irangi, Bagamoyo, Zanzibar, Kilwa, Mafia, Engaruka, Kagera etc
In Uganda Nsongezi, Biggo, Ntubi, Rusinga Island, Magosi and Ishago.
In Kenya. Lake Rudolf (Turkana), Lake Naivasha, Njoro, Olongesailie, Lake Magadi, Lamu, Mombasa and mt. Kenya
Functions of Historical Sites
Disadvantages of Historical Sites
Disadvantages of Historical Sites
This refers to the scientific study of past human remain.
It is the study of material remains of man’s past through scientific methods. The one specializes in archeology is called ARCHAEOLOGIST. Archaeology involves excavations (digging) of the remains of man’s past historical sites and interpretation.
The famous archaeologist in East Africa was Dr. Louis Leaky with his wife Mary Leakey
Archaeology involves the use of carbon 14 dating to determine plants and animal remains.
Functions of Archaeology
Advantages of Archaeology
Disadvantages of Archaeology
These are places where collection of public and private documents and old record are preserved. These documents includes personal letters, early travelers and missionary records, traders writings, personal and government files, political parties documents, etc.
Functions of Archives
Disadvantages Of Archives
These are places or buildings where information and objects are preserved it involves all terms, which shows culture, political economic and technological development from the past to the present. Objects can be early coins, clothes, and mineral cowries, religious and ceremonial symbols. Museum can be national, Regional, District and village. e.g. National Museums in Dar es Salaam, Bagamoyo, Butiama, Kalenga Iringa.
Advantages of Museums
Disadvantages Of Museums.
6. Written Records:
Are the documents, which comprise written historical information. This includes books, letters, maps, magazines, journal, newspaper, minutes of meetings and conferences. Written records can be found in libraries, schools, colleges, universities, internet cafes, offices etc.
Functions of Written Records
Advantages of Written Records.
Disadvantages of Witten Records
Is scientific study and analysis of language. It includes study of sound, structure, information and relationship between various language groups.
Advantages of Linguistics
Is the study of the society’s cultural systems, beliefs, ideas etc. The study can give important information about movements, settlements and production activities of the past.
Dating Historical Events
Historians usually divide time into several categories, namely
How To Determine Dates
Dates are instrument in a science of history; these historians divided dates into four ways;
1. Recalling events: - here important events are recalled/remembered e.g. drought, farming, floods, birth, eruption of diseases etc.
2. by studying languages: - Some names helps people to remember dates of some events. E.g., Word “Karafuu” started when Cloves were introduced in Zanzibar.
3. Carbon 14 is a scientific method of determining dates. It used in the finding dates for remains of animals or plants, which died beyond 5000 years ago. Carbon 14 is a gas found in carbon dioxide, which exists in the atmosphere. It absorbed by plant and other living organisms. When died carbon 14 that starts to decay at a fixed rate from the time of death.
4. Orders of events: ways showing order of events, period and ages, among them are-
The Britain Conference
The first World war period
The second world war period
Tanganyika become independent
Tanganyika became republic
Introduction of multipart’s in Tanzania.
HISTORY FORM ONE
EVOLUTION OF MAN, TECHNOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT
1. MULTIPLE CHOICES
(i) Who advocated the theory of human evolution?
(ii) In creation theory, human being is considered as
(iii) In his archeological work which led to discovery of skull of the first man. Dr Leakey was assisted by:
(iv) Which of the theory of origin of life below is not scientific?
(v) Microliths are:
(vi) The evidence of middle stone tools is found in parts of:
(vii) With fire man could?
(viii) Which of the following was called able man?
(ix) Which is not a feature of primates?
(x) Which is not a characteristic of Homo sapiens?
2. Match the item in LIST A with their correct response from LIST B. Write down letter of correct response in space provided.
3. Write T for true statement and F for false statement.
4. (a) Mention (4) four human characteristics that made man different from the other Primates.
(b) Fill the spaces below
5 (a) Name four uses of tools by man in Old Stone Age period.
(b) Mention three ways used by early man to get food.
6. Show the different between tools used by man during the middle stone age and those of old stone age.
7. (a) Explain how fire was discovered
(b) Explain the contribution of fire to man
8. Mention the difference between the following
a) Stone Age
b) Iron Age.