THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA NATIONAL EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL
CERTIFICATE OF SECONDARY EDUCATION EXAMINATION
(For School Candidates Only)
Time:3Hours Monday, 04th November 2013p.m.
This paper consists of sections A, B, C and D.
Answer allquestions in sections A and B. In sections C and D answer questions as instructed under each section.
Cellular phones and calculators are not allowed in the examination room.
Write your Examination Number on every page of your answer booklet(s).
SECTION A (10 Marks) COMPREHENSION AND SUMMARY
1. Read the passage below carefully and then answer the questions that follow.
The East African Community (AEC) is an intergovernmental organisation that is made up of five member countries: Tanzania, Kenya, Rwanda, Uganda and Burundi. These countries cover an area of about 1.8 million square kilometres and, by 2005, the community had a population of about 100 million people.
Cooperation in East Africa started many years ago. Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda in particular have cooperation since the early 20th Century. For example, there was the Customs Union between Uganda and Kenya in 1917, whereas, Tanganyika joined in 1927.
The East African Community itself has had a long history too. It was originally founded in 1967, but it collapsed in 1977, partly because of disagreements in the political philosophies of the three countries: dictatorship under Idi Amin in Uganda, socialism in Tanzania and capitalism in Kenya. Later on, president Mwinyi of Tanzania, Moi of Kenya and Museveni of Uganda signed the Treaty for East African Cooperation in Arusha, Tanzania on 30th November 1993. They established a Tripartite Cooperation. The Cooperation embraced many areas including political, social, cultural, research and technology, defence, security, legal and financial affairs. On 30th November 1999, a Treaty for the reestablishment of the East African Community was signed and it came into force on 7th July 2000. Burundi and Rwanda joined the East African Community in 2007.
There are governance structures that serve the East African Community. The East African Court of Justice is the judicial arm of the Community. The Court oversees the interpretation and application of the 1999 Treaty that established the EAC. The legislation arm of the Community is the East African Legislative Assembly (EALA). The Assembly has 27 members who are elected by the National Assemblies of member countries. One of the functions of EALA is to debate and approve the budget of the Community. Since its inauguration, the EALA has had several sittings in Arusha, Kampala and Nairobi.
Though faced with numerous challenges, the EAC has had some achievements and has outlined some future plans. One key achievement is the introduction of the East African passport was launched on 1st April 1999. This passport was introduced in order to make border crossing for East Africans easier. It is available at the headquarters of the respective immigration departments in Dar es salaam, nairobi and Kampala. Among EAC’s future plans is the introduction of a monetary union with a common currency, a common market and a political union.
(a) Choose the most correct answer and write its letter in your answer booklet.
(i) Which of the following is a list of the member countries of the East African Community today?
Burundi, Congo, Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda
Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia, Uganda and Burundi
Uganda, Kenya, Burundi, Rwanda and Malawi
Rwanda, Zimbabwe, Uganda, Burundi and Tanzania
Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda and Burundi.
Choose Answer :
(ii) Why was the East African passport introduced?
To easier border crossing for East Africans
In order to help business men across the border
So as to transport goods easier through the border
For simplifying immigration processes at the border
To identify people who are out of the EAC at the border.
Choose Answer :
(iii) What is the synonym of the word reestablish?
Choose Answer :
(iv) Why was the East African Community collapsed in 1977?
A Because of socialism ideology in Tanzania B Due to different country philosophies C As the result of dictatorship practices in Uganda D The capitalism philosophy was the collapse reason E Due to the weak leadership in the organisation.
Choose Answer :
(b)Complete the following sentences with the right information from the passage.
Write down the acronym EALA in full.
Mention one forthcoming plan for EAC.
The signing of the Treaty to reestablish East African Community was done
2. Read and summarize the following passage in five sentences in a single paragraph.
Soil erosion is a problem that causes concern world widely. This is because it has very bad effects on the areas concerned.
The causes of soil erosion are many and varied. Deforestation is one major cause of soil erosion. People cut down forests for various reasons? for example, for firewood and construction purposes. They may also cut down trees in order to make room for cultivation where land is scarce, and to get timber for commercial purposes.
Poor farming practice is also a cause of soil erosion. Overcropping is one of the poor farming methods. In many places, the same types of crops are grown on the same place over the years without any attempt to replace used up nutrients. These crops use up the soil nutrients and leave the soil loose and vulnerable to erosion by wind. People who cultivate on hillsides or sloppy areas also contribute to soil erosion. When such areas are cultivated, the vegetation cover is removed and the soil is left bare. During the rains, running water easily washes away the soil down, to the lowlands.
In many places, people tend to overgraze. Many animals are reared on small pieces of land. The animals eat vegetations and leave the land bare. This makes it easier for the agents of soil erosion to carry away the soil.
The new development in agriculture and improved methods of farming has helped in prevention of soil erosion. In the sloppy areas, cover plants such as sweet potato vines are grown. The farmers practise contour farming and terracing. These methods ensure the running water does not carry away the soil to the lowlands.
Crop rotation and meaningful intercropping should be practised as they help prevent soil erosion by retaining the nutrients in the soil. Few animals should be grazed in a plot of land to ensure that overgrazing does not take place.
Afforestation is another measure used to control soil erosion. Where forests have been cleard by man or fires, new trees are planted. The roots of these trees hold the soil and protect it from agents of soil erosion.