FORM FOUR GEOGRAPHY NECTA 2012

THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA NATIONAL EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL

CERTIFICATE OF SECONDARY EDUCATION EXAMINATION

013 GEOGRAPHY

(For School Candidates Only)

Time: 3 Hours Wednesday, 10thOctober 2012a.m. 

Instructions

1. This paper consists of sections A, B, C and D.

2. Answer all questions in sections A, B and C and one (1) question from each part of section D.

3. Map extract of Korogwe (Series Y742 sheet 129/2) is provided.

4. Credit will be given for the use of relevant sketch maps and diagrams.

5.  Calculators and cellular phones are not allowed in the examination room.

6. Write your Examination Number on every page of your answer booklet(s)

SECTION A (25 Marks)

Answer all questions in this section.

PHYSICAL AND MATHEMATICAL GEOGRAPHY

1.  For each of the items (i) - (x), choose the correct answer from among the given alternatives and write its letter beside the item number.

(i)  The outer layers of the earth include:

  1.   Atmosphere, Lithosphere and Troposphere
  2.   Atmosphere, Troposphere and Biosphere
  3.   Atmosphere, Hydrosphere and Biosphere 
  4.  Atmosphere, Lithosphere and Biosphere
  5.  Atmosphere, Hydrosphere and Lithosphere.
Choose Answer :


(ii) Which of the following is the effect of mass wasting?

  1.   Frost action
  2.  Interlocking spur
  3.   Rock fall
  4.   Exfoliation
  5.  Rock disintegration.
Choose Answer :


(iii) The columns of clay capped by boulders formed due to rain action are known as:

  1.   soil creep 
  2.  gullies 
  3.  land slide
  4.  earth pillars 
  5.  cuesta
Choose Answer :


(iv) Which of the following features is formed by river erosion?

  1.   pot hole 
  2.  ox bow lake 
  3.  delta 
  4.  flood plain
  5.  lagoon.
Choose Answer :


(v)  Rotation of the earth results to: 

  1.  elliptical orbit
  2.  change of seasons
  3.  day and night 
  4.  leap year
  5.  standard time.
Choose Answer :


(vi) __________ are good examples of fold mountains in Africa.

  1.   Uluguru and Oldoinyo Lengai
  2.   Jos and Karoo
  3.   Elgon and Kilimanjaro 
  4.  Atlas and Cape Ranges 
  5.  Udzungwa and Kilimanjaro.
Choose Answer :


(vii) Which one of the following is a process of wind erosion?

  1.  Abrasion 
  2.  Corrosion 
  3.  Hydrolysis
  4.  Exfoliation 
  5.  Attrition.
Choose Answer :


(viii)  A great circle is a circle on a globe whose plane: 

  1.  passes through the centre of the globe
  2.   has the shortest distance between two points
  3.  is perpendicular with the globe 
  4.  marks a line of longitude 
  5.  marks a line of latitude.
Choose Answer :


(ix) The intensity of an earthquake is measured by:

  1.  epicentre 
  2.  seismograph 
  3.  richter scale 
  4.  chronometer 
  5.  mercalli scale.
Choose Answer :


(x)  Soil texture refers to:

  1.  arrangement of soil particle
  2.  size of individual soil particles
  3.  soil catena
  4.  soil PH
  5.  grained structure.
Choose Answer :


2. Match the items in List A with the responses in List B by writing the letter of the correct response beside the item number.

LIST A LIST B

(i)  The earth’s zone which is made up of nickel and iron.

(ii) A wall like feature formed when a mass of magma cuts across the bedding plane.

(iii) The upper most layer of the earth.

(iv) A sheet of magma which lies along the bedding plane.

(v) Magma which reaches the earth’s surface and solidifies to form extrusive features.

  1. Crust
  2. Lava
  3. Magma
  4. Mode
  5. Dyke
  6. Sill
  7. Core
  8. Volcano
  9. Batholiths
  10. Mantle
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3. (a) What is an earthquake?

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(b) Briefly explain five effects of earthquakes.

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(c)  Describe four ways of reducing the risks of earthquakes.

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SECTION B (27 Marks) Answer all questions this section.

APPLICATION OF STATISTICS, INTRODUCTION TO RESEARCH AND

ELEMENTARY SURVEYING

4. Carefully study the hypothetical data presented below showing the export of crops from Tanzania.

The Export of Crops in Tonnes

Year

Cloves

Sisal

Cotton

1990

4000

3500

7000

1991

2500

2000

4500

1992

3500

1500

6000

1993

6000

1000

8500

1994

6500

1500

9000

(a)  Present the data using compound bar graph.

(b)  Explain two advantages and disadvantages of compound bar graph.

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5. (a) What is meant by sampling techniques as used in research?

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 (b)  Briefly explain the following concepts as they are applied in sampling:

(i) A sample

(ii) Random sampling

(iii) Systematic sampling

(iv) Stratified sampling

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(c) Outline the procedures of conducting an interview.

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6. (a) (i) Define the term levelling survey.

 (ii) Sate four benefits of levelling survey.

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(b) Explain essential equipments used in levelling surveying.

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SECTION C (28 Marks)

Answer all questions in this section.

MAP READING AND PHOTOGRAPH INTERPRETATION

7. Study the printed map extract of Korogwe (Series Y742 sheet 129/2), then answer the following questions:

(a)  Describe the relief of the mapped area.

(b) Calculate the area of the whole map of Korogwe in Km2 by using grid squares.

(c)  Examine the settlement patterns of the area.

(d)  Express the scale of the map into statement scale.

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8.  (a) Name three types of geographical photographs.

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(b)  Specify the type of geographical photograph which is:

(i)  taken horizontally on the ground.

(ii)  used in map making.

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(c)  Explain five differences between the photograph you have mentioned in (b) (ii) above and topographical maps.

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SECTION D (20 Marks)

Answer one (1) question from each part.

PART 1: REGIONAL FOCAL STUDIES

9. By using concrete examples, explain five negative effects of tourism in East Africa.

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10. Elaborate eight reasons indicating why the transportation sector is important to the economy of Tanzania.

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PART II: ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES, POPULATION AND SETTLEMENT

11.  Explain eight environmental problems related to the rapid population growth.

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12. (a) Describe five objectives of conducting census in a country.

 (b) Explain three limitations of census in African countries.

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