3. Read the following passage and then answer the questions that follow.
Members of international community interact in various ways. The most common is through different international organizations. These organizations are in three main categories namely? global, regional and sub regional. This form of interaction may be for various purposes like political, economic and even sports.
At the political level, the most important organization since the Second World War is the United Nations Organization (UNO). It was established in 1945 with the main purpose of maintaining the world peace and security.
The main organs of the UNO are the General Assembly in which each member of the UNO is invited on equal terms. On the other hand, the Security Council has segregation with the five permanent members having the greater rights than others. These members hold Veto power which means that any one of them can block any decision in the Council. The permanent members are joined by other ten members who hold the position for two years. they are chosen on the basis of geographical location and other qualifications.
Notwithstanding, the fact that the UNO represents the highest aspirations of the world’s peoples for a world free of war, hunger, repression and suffering? there are very strong criticism of UNO performance. Some analysts have felt that UNO has been too passive in the pursuit of peace in the world particularly over the two decades. Cases like Rwanda, Burundi, Somalia and Palestine and Israel are illustrative.
On the African continent, the most important institution is the African Union (AU). This is a new organization established in 2002 transformed from currently nonoperational Organization of African Unity (OAU). The OAU had a long history. It was established in 1963 by heads of states and governments of independent African Countries. Its main preoccupation was Liberation of African
States and consolidation of independent African States. In the post liberation era on the continent, the African Union is expected to address economic and other problems facing Africa.
(a) From the passage you have read, is the United Nations a democratic organization? Give reason for your answer.
(b) From your own understanding, list five permanent members of UNO which have Veto power.
(c) From the passage, what are the major achievements of OAU?
(d) (i) From your own knowledge, mention the city in which the headquarters of UNO is located.
(ii) Apart from its basic duty which is to maintain the world peace and security, mention other three important functions of UNO according to this passage?
(e) From your own understanding, mention any three sub regional organizations found in Africa (Write them in a short and long form).
Answer three (3) questions from this section. Each question carries 20 marks.
5. “Most countries in the World hold general elections, but the challenge remains on the extent to which a particular election is free and fair.” In the light of this quotation, examine six conditions for free and fair election.
8. “The debate on the merits and demerits of globalization sometimes generate more questions than answers.” In the light of this quotation, show six socioeconomic demerits of globalization in Tanzania.