Chapter 01 : Expressing one's ideas and feelings

Learning to express your ideas and feelings is important because your ideas and feelings are essential to who you are. In this chapter; you will listen carefully to a passage, which will be read to you b the teacher: and answer questions on it to practice your listening skills-. You will also read a tongue twister, recite a poem, read and act out a dialogue, and answer questions that will be asked. Next, you 101 read a passage titled Environmental pollution and then answer questions on it. Then. you will practice using vocabulary items related to the passage and use if and unless in different contexts. Finally, you will write an essay on a given topic,. expressing your ideas and .feelings. The competencies developed in this chapter will enable you to express your ideas and feelings in different situations.

Activity 1: Listening practice

(a) Listen to a passage which will be read to you by the teacher

(b) Pair Zip with another student lo discuss the main ideas yell have heard in the passage.

(c) Answer the following questions on the passage you have listened to:-

  1. Cite evidence from the passage to show that climate change is worsening.
  2. According to the passage, what factors contribute to climate change?
  3. Apart from the factors explained in the passage, what other factors contribute to climate change?
  4. What would you do at school and home to slow down climate change?

(d) Listen to audio/aural and audio-visual materials on how to express your ideas and feelings.

(e) Write a summary of what you have listened to.

(f) Exchange your work with your fellow students in a small group and discuss

(g) Cooperate with the other group members to develop a group SUMMIT' to be presented to the rest of the class

Activity 2 : Speaking practice

(a) Read aloud the following tongue twisters several times

Brother this weather is weer than ever

Better wetter weather than honer weather

Whether the weather is hotter or wetter, how can we gather

(b) Recite the following poem and answer the questions that follow

Broken bottles and charred pieces of glass

Cutting down trees and burning grass Turning the earth into a concrete jungle

Is this the environment that surrounds me?

Our food sprayed with insecticides and poisoned

Oceans filled with thick oil, crude and dirty

Bound to end all sea life, a pending doom

l see Are these the things we are to consume?

Factories producing yellow fumes and pumping out iron

Planes and helicopters releasing gases from fuels.

Weapons of destruction tested at desolate sites

Is this the air that's to sustain life?

Something must be done to curb the situation

Like raise the awareness of those around you

That if we don't solve the problem at hand

It's your life that's at stake, the destruction of man


  1. What is the poem about?
  2. How cam you describe the surroundings in which the narrator lives?
  3. What does 'concrete jungle' mean in the first stanza?
  4. What human activities destroy our environment?
  5. Flow would you educate others on preserving the environment?
  6. What could be an appropriate title for the poem?

(c) Read and act out the following dialogue.

It was eight of in the morning when the hell rang, warning us that the first Monday lesson was about to start, Mr Nuswe., the Form Four Geography teacher, entered our classroom.

Mr Nuswe: Good morning, students.

The class: Good morning. sir.

Mr Nuswe; Take your seats, please ( with a smile). Class who can tell us the meaning of pollution?

Mata: Sir . . . . ., sir. . . . ., (scratching her head while thinking) I have an idea; in my opinion, pollution is any process that destroys our environment.

Mr Nuswe : Good try_ Any other opinion? (asking arid pointing to Pyana) Yes, Pyana .....

Pyana : (confidently) Mats has put it well, sir. Any process that destroys our environment is pollution. However, pollution can also be defined as the addition of harmful substances to our environment_ These substances lead to water, land and air pollution.

Mr Nuswe: Well done, Pyana, Alright class_ How can water be polluted? (pointing to ,Jani). Jani, can you say something?

Jani: Yes, sir, when some materials, such as industrial and agricultural chemicals enter water bodies, the water will be polluted. In addition, other human activities carried out along water bodies may also be a source of water pollution.

Mr Nuswe: Well said, Jani What do you think are other causes of water pollution? Niku, tell us more please . . . . .

Niku: Thank you, sir You see., I'm not pleased with what people are doing in our street. They let dirty water from their toilets flow toward water bodies, I think this also contributc;s to water pollution. Something should be done to stop this behavior, considering the fact that safe and clean water is essential to our lives.

Pyana : (interrupts) I am very worried a.bout what will happen to our lives after some years. I think we won't have any safe water to use unless some effective measures are tam to prevent all activities that came water pollution,

Mr Nuswe: So, what can we do to prevent water pollution?

Mats: You know sir, (in an angry tone) " In so furious about the way people pollute our water bodies. If I were a leader, I would take them to court and demand they be sentenced to life imprisonment as a lesson to others.

Mr Nuswe : Calm down Mats- We can share the best solution to this problem without harming anyone. Let us hear from others,

Liko: l suggest that the government should provide mass education. It will help people to understand the importance of dean and safe water in their lives. The effects of water pollution on human health should be elaborated. This might also help to reduce the outbreaks of diseases like cholera and dysentery.

Vumi: I'm of the opinion that education alone is not enough to overcome our environmental problems. Take an example of my street, Vijibweni, where people discharge waste water from their sewage into low lying water bodies during the rainy season. SO, despite the awareness created through our mass media, water pollution is still there. I would suggest that stem measures should be taken against these people to save our water bodies and our 1ives.

Tando: (pointing to Vami). Of course, you are right, I don't understand why people continue to pollute our water despite all the awareness- raising campaigns.. It is really upsetting. 1 think everyone should play their part in keeping our water bodies safe. This can be done by reporting to the relevant authorities any matters associated with water pollution.

Nuswe: Well done class We've had a wonderful discussion today, All the ideas and opinions expressed during our discussion are essential for the welfare of our society. We should take this lesson seriously and become good ambassadors to show that we take care of our environment for the current and future generations_

(d) Considering the dialogue, answer the ,following questions orally

  1. What does water pollution mean?
  2. What are the three causes of water pollution?
  3. Why do you think people are reluctant to stop water pollution despite the education given?
  4. I low can we prevent water pollution'?
  5. What are other ways of preventing water pollution?

(e) Write a paragraph of five sentences, summarizing, the issue of water pollution as described in the dialogue

(f) Write one sentence. each off the following words:

  1. pollution
  2. sewage
  3. chemical
  4. cholera

Complete the table below with the correct information.





Water pollution

(i) Industrial chemicals

(ii) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(i) Locating industries far from water bodies

(ii) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Air pollution

(i) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(ii) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(i) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(ii) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Land pollution

(i) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(ii) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(i) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(ii) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow

Environmental pollution

Last year, during my mid-term holiday, my parents sent me to visit my grandmother as she was ailing due to old age. She lives in Ndolezi, a village which nestles at the foot of a hill in a fertile valley; so, food in the village is always plentiful.

I found my grandmother in good health, and we chatted until late in the night as she wanted to know everything about everyone in the family. I was not pleased to hear a lot of noise outside our house the next morning. 1 looked at my watch; it was only six o'clock. "Man! Isn't it too early for this I muttered to myself angrily at being woken up at such early hours. I pulled the bed sheet over my head and tried to go back to sleep.

Then I heard what people were saying, "We must not be late for the meeting," 1 remembered what my grandmother had told me when w were dialing. "Now go to bed because you must wake up early. Tomorrow., we are having a very important meeting with our village investor and environment officials.. You will go on my behalf" I quickly jumped. out o f bed, washed, dressed., and went to join the villagers at the meeting.

l arrived at the ground just as the village chairperson, Ms Mbejeje, stood up. She greeted everyone and welcomed us to the meeting. Then, she said, "One day an investor came and proposed to build a factory on the Mil. He laid out his plan and explained how beneficial this venture would be We all remember that, right?' The crowd responded, "Yes, we remember."

"At first, we were all reluctant to allow the investor to build a factory, considering the fact that we were doing okay," she continued. "We didn't have much, but we appreciated all the blessings that had been bestowed upon us,." The investor promised many employment opportunities in the factory. He also promised to build a health facility and a new school for the village. After considering all the facts, we all agreed to the venture,. but this has come with a cost," Ms Mbejeje stopped and looked around sadly. She we the village secretary, Mr Mukange, t continue reporting on what had transpired.

"It was a brave new venture for all of us. We dream of owning big houses, taking our children to good schools and buying fancy cars, The investor kept to his end of the bargain; most of our people. both skilled and unskilled, were employed in the factory. We also got a new school and a health centre. However,...." he hesitated for a moment, " n one foresaw the havoc that was to be caused by this venture. What do we do now? He asked_

Everyone was silent, Then, one old woman raised her hand and said, "Our village is dying. Look at those chimneys; look at that black smoke billowing out of the chimneys That is why we are all coughing And what about our water? We depended on the river for our water, but who will touch it now? It i s full of dirt and other stuff-from the factory. Now. we have to walk to the other side of the hill to fetch clean water."

She was followed by an old man who said, -Look around you. Where are the flowers; where is the green; where are the fish in the river? Unless we take measures now, our village will be destroyed.:' As the villagers went on talking, I tried to imagine a time when there will be no flowers, no butterflies, and no fish; when the rain will be black be of the pollutants; when the rivers will have dried up and instead of forests, we will have concrete jungles! I raised my hand. "Yes, Siwe. Do you want to say anything?"' Ms M.bejeje pointed at me.

"Yes, madam, than you for the opportunity," 1 said. "I have come here for the holidays to visit my grandmother. I remember coming here before the factory was built. On top of that hill lay vast green pastures. I used to take my grandmother's goats there and meet with the other herd boys, We used to have a lot of fun on the hill; we chased each other, wrestled and even flexed our muscles just to show off. Children can no longer do that," I smiled with a note of sadness, "I'm of the opinion that it was wrong to build a factor!...r on that hill, regardless of all the benefits brought by the investor. we had done more research on this, we could never have been in this predicament, So, we need to shut clown the factory first, and other measures can follow,"l concluded and sat down. People clapped and some nodded in agreement.

The environmental officer a the last to speak, He said "After re-examining the pros and cons of the project, the government will shut down the factory, immediately." The crowd erupted with joy and ululations. Well bring experts to clean the river. An investigation is still going on and so all the necessary steps will be taken by the factory owners to prevent future disasters. We'll work together and make sure that we preserve our environment," he concluded.

At the end of the meeting, we all agreed to do more for our environment We
agreed in principle to grow more trees, stop killing wild animals, stop using plastic bag, stop littering and use more environmental-friendly products. We must all do everything we can to achieve a pollution-free environment; otherwise, we will he destroyed by a disaster of our own making.


1. Who is the narrator of this story?

2 What made the village chairperson call the meeting?

3. Why do you think the meeting was important?

4 Mat do you understand by 'environmenta1 pollution 1?

5. Mention some or the pollutants that you know,

6 What is you do both at home and at school to pres.erve the environment?

7. What do you think will happen if we do not take care of our water sources?

Activity 4 : Vocabulary practice

(a) Study the table below and match the worth in Column X with their meanings in Column Y By writing the letter of the correct response in the space provided.

Column X

Column Y


No. Words No. Meaning


Early hours


The process of making air, water. soil,. etc_ dirty; the state of being dirty

2. Pollution (ii) A sudden increase in trade and economic activity; a period of wealth and success
3. Investor (iii) A substance that makes something dirty, especially water or the atmosphere
4. Venture (iv) The time between midnight and sunrise:
5. Wrestle (v) A person or an organisation that invests money in something
6. Boom (vi) A situation where there is a lot of damage, destruction or confusion
7. Bargain (vii) A difficult or an unpleasant situation. especially one where it is difficult to know what to do
8. Havoc (viii) To struggle physically to move or manage something
9. Pollutant (ix) A business project or activity,especially one that involves taking risks
10. Predicament (x) An item bought for less than the usual price

4.1 Construct one sentence for each word in Column X in Activity 4(a).

Activity 5: Grammar practice

(a) Find and read the sentences with the following words clad phrases: if. . . . . . unless . . . . . . of the opinion that . . . . . and considering the fact that . . . . . ., in the passage in the passage of Activity 3.

(b) Use the words and phrase .s. in Activity 5(a) above to write your, own sentences.

(c) One sentence for each of the following structures.

  1. In my opinion
  2. I am of the opinion that
  3. Considering the fact that ...
  4. I suggest .„
  5. I would rather
  6. This might

(d) Write a short passage using at least half of the group of words in Activity 5(c) above.

(e) Shah. the following sentences from the dialogue in Activity 2(c).

1. If I were a leader, I would take them to court and demand they be sentenced to life imprisonment as a lesson to others.

2. I think we won't have any safe water to use unless some effective measures are taken to prevent all activities that cause water pollution_

Expressing conditions

ln English, there are three ways of expressing condition

(f) Consider the following model sentences to practice how to express possible/ likely condition

  1. If you work hard, you will pass the examination..
  2. if I finish my work in time, I will go to play.
  3. We will he healthy if we eat a balanced diet_
  4. They will be punished if they come late_
  5. If James comes today, I will tell him the story_
  6. If Joyce works hard. she will pass the examination_
  7. He will fail if he does nut work hard.

All these sentences you have just read express possible /likely conditions,. They show what will happen under certain circumstances, expecting that they will happen if conditions are met. That is one way of expressing conditions. Such expressions are called Type 1 conditions.

(g) Complete the following sentences in your own words

  1. If I get money, . . . . . . . . . . . . .
  2. If you buy a new dress. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
  3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . if Amina arrives in time.
  4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . if your brother visits us
  5. If you do not take care of your belongings . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(h) Study the following model sentences to practice how lo express unlikely condition.

1. If I got money, I would buy a new book.

2. If you arrived on time, you would meet the Regional Commission

3. We would. be healthy if we ate a balanced diet

4. If Baraka worked hard, he would pass the examination.

5. We would meet them if they attended the party.

All the sentences you have just. read express conditions about things that are unlikely to happen, They talk about conditions that will probably not be met. That way of expressing conditions forms what we call Type 2 conditions.

(i) Complete the following sentences in your own word

  1. If my friend visited me, . . . . . . . . . . . . .
  2. If Asha came to the party, . . . . . . . . . . . . .
  3. If they did not work hard, . . . . . . . . . . . . .
  4. If our mother bought us presents, . . . . . . . . . . . . .
  5. He would pass the examination, . . . . . . . . . . . . .
  6. Maria would help you, . . . . . . . . . . . . .
  7. If he had some money, . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(j) Study the following model sentences to practise how to express impossible condition.

  1. If I had had some money. I would have bought a new shirt.
  2. If my brother had traveled, he would have brought me a present
  3. She would have seen me if she had turned around.
  4. My friend would have helped me if I had had a problem.

The sentences presented above express condition. It is the condition for which there. is no hope at all. The sentences simply talk about something that never happened. Therefore, they are hypothetical. In other words, the sentences express regret. These are Type 3 conditions. This condition can also he expressed through verb inversion as in the following examples.:

1. (a) If I had invited him, he would have attended the party

(b) Had I invited him, he would have attended the party.,

2. (a) If she had worked hard, she would have passed the examination.

(b) Had she worked hard, she would have passed the examination.

(k) Now; complete the following sentences in your own words,

1. If f had met the President, . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2. I would have told him, . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3. Martha would. have given you some money, . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4. If Sofia had not cooked that food, . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5. I would have seen Mount Kilimanjaro, . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6. I lad we seen the snake, . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7. Had Monica invited us to her birthday party, . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8. Ashura would have asked him a question

9. If Oniary had written a good application letter, . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10. If Atupele had bought that house, . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Using "unless" in conditional sentences

You have so far understood how conditions are expre.ssed. The word that has dominated is "if." 1 to ever. there are times when we use the word 'unless' instead of "if . . . . .not"

(l) Study the following model sentences to practice the use of "unless" to express condition

  1. Unless Anna works hard, she will not pass the examination.
  2. You would get a problem, unless you asked for advice.
  3. Unless she had been a doctor, she would not have recognized the symptoms.
  4. I would have come late unless. I had got up early.
  5. Unless Furaha grew mango trees, you would not get the fruits.

Note: "Unless" does not affect the forms of the three types of conditions. It only expresses a negative condition.

(m) Rewrite.the following sentence according to the given instructions

1. If he calls me, I will respond,

Begin; If he called me, . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2. He would win the prize if he worked hard.

Rewrite ending in " . . . . . . . . . . . . . if he had worked hard."

3. If we keep cows we will get a lot of milk

Rewrite beginning with "If we kept cows"

4. If he eats a balanced diet: he will be healthy.

Rewrite ending with " . . . . . . . . . . . . .he would be healthy"

(ii) Match the following expressions in Column A with those in Column B to make a complete sentence by writing the correct response in the space provided

Column A Column B Response
  1. They would have won the match
  2. If she speaks with her landlord
  3. If they had paid all the taxes required
  4. She would be expelled from school
  5. We will have many potential industries

  1. If she misbehaves.
  2. if the government allocates enough funds..
  3. if they play well,
  4. if she misbehaved.
  5. they wouldn't have faced difficulties in their business.
  6. if they had played confidently
  7. she will be given enough time to pay her rent
  8. if the government allocated enough funds
  9. she will be given enough time to settle her bills

(o) Write the verbs in brackets in their correct forms

  1. I would have (give) him some money if he (ask).
  2. Haji will build his house if he (get) a building permit.
  3. If he (steal) the bicycle, they would have (punish) him.
  4. If he (purchase) more goods, he would (retain) his customers.
  5. I will (talk) to her parents if she (come) late.
  6. They (forgive) us if we apologise for our mistakes.
  7. If you had (send) me an invitation, I (come) to your party.
  8. Would they (feel) sorry i f their beloved teacher had (leave ) the school?
  9. Unless you (paint) your house blue, it would riot look so nice.
  10. I would travel around. the world if (win) the lonely.

(p) Rewrite iliefollowing sentences using "unless."

  1. If he doesn't find his wallet, he will be confused.
  2. He would have refused to marry her if she had riot changed her ways.
  3. You would lx late for school if you didn't n.m.
  4. If you didn't practise hard, you wouldn't be chosen for the team.

(q) Complete the following Sentences with the correct form,

  1. Unless you prepare a good revision timetable, . . . . . . . . . . . . .
  2. A lot of crops wouldn't have been harvested, . . . . . . . . . . . . .
  3. Simbu would-n-1_ have felt proud, . . . . . . . . . . . . .
  4. Unless the teacher had encouraged them to, . . . . . . . . . . . . .
  5. Unless they used mosquito nets, . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(r) Write a short passage on the environment using if and unless in some sentences.

Using 250 to 300 words, write an essay about one of the following topics.

  1. Pollution and its effects on the ecosystem
  2. How soil erosion can be avoided
  3. How recycling is beneficial to our environment
  4. Ways of managing waste to avoid environmental pollution
  5. How we can best conserve energy

Note: the the following phrases or constructions in your essay: in my opinion, I am of the opinion that, considering the fact that, this might, 1 would rather, I suggest, and I strongly advise.

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