Time: 3 Hours Tuesday, 03 rd May 2016 a.m.


1. This paper consists of sections A, B, C and D.

2. Answer five (5) questions, choosing one (1) question from each section. Question one (1) is compulsory .

3. Calculators are not allowed in the examination room.

4. Cellular phones are not allowed in the examination room.

5. Write your Examination Number on every page of your answer booklet(s).

SECTION A (40 Marks)


Answer question one (1) and any other from this section.

1. (a) Describe five types of language knowledge.

(b) Write the function of language performed by each of the following utterances:

(i) I’m very tired.

(ii) I’ve got something to tell you.

(iii) Do as I tell you.

(iv) I swear to tell the truth.

(v) Nice day.

(vi) You are fired!

(vii) Will you pass the salt?

(viii) You come out there!

(ix) We had a lovely time.

(x) Our warmest congratulations!

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2. Using appropriate examples, explain eight possibile sociolinguistic outcomes when two or more languages come into contact.

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3. “Tanzania is a triglosic country.” Substantiate the statement, giving eight points with relevant examples.

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SECTION B (20 Marks)


4. (a) Write the IPA symbol for the first sound in each of the following words:

(i) cyst

(ii) chorus

(iii) xylophone

(iv) psychology

(v) pneumonia

(b) Write five different English words whose initial sounds are produced when the airstream from the lungs is stopped and then released quickly with an explosion.

(c) Using examples, describe five phonological factors that can cause Tanzanian learners of English as a foreign or second language fail to understand what natives and other fluent speakers of English are saying.

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5. (a) What is a bibliography?

(b) Convert each of the following sentences into an APA bibliography format.

(i) In 1976, Michael Alexander Kirkwood Halliday and Ruqaiya Hassan wrote a book entitled Cohision in English. The book was published in Singapore by Longman Group Limited.

(ii) A book called vocabulary and language teaching has been written by R. Carter and M. McCarthy and published in Essex by Longman in 1988.

(iii) D. Court and D. Ghai have written a book called education, society and development. The year of publication is 1974; and the publishers are Oxford University Press based in Nairobi.

(iv) In 1992, the MacMillan Press Limited of London published a book titled study and communication skills by R. W. Mutua, S. J. Omulando, and J. E. Otiende.

(v) In 1980, M. S. Fisher’s article entitled parent education appeared on page 573-76 of volume xi of the Encyclopaedia of Social Sciences published in New York.

(vi) A book called Sociolinguistics has been written by R. A. Hudson and published in Cambridge by Cambridge University Press in 1980.

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SECTION C (20 Marks)


Answer one (1) question from this section.

6. (a) Name the word formation process involved in producing the underlined form in the sentences below:

(i) I’m very very tired.

(ii) There is a long queue outside the theatre.

(iii) Show me how to access the information.

(iv) She was dressed in a blue nylon skirt.

(v) Several countries have threatened to boycott the Olympic Games.

(b) For each of the five words below, mention the suffix, the word class before suffixation, and the word class after suffixation.

(i) Ashen

(ii) Harden

(iii) Fishy

(iv) Ferocity

(v) Motherly

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7. (a) Re-write the following sentences, using the underlined words as verbs.

(i) Give her a gentle push .

(ii) The police have delayed his release .

(iii) She will get a transfer to another school.

(iv) Farmers will appeal to the president for help .

(v) Peter is our suspect in this burglary.

(vi) I have no access to the information.

(vii) Their stay in the village takes several weeks.

(viii) There will be an increase in food production this year.

(ix) Don’t give a reward to these indiscipline students.

(x) The MP is not happy with the results and plans to make an appeal .

(b) Change the following words into verbs and then use each of the new verbs in a meaningful sentence:

(i) Relief

(ii) Apology

(iii) Captive

(iv) Sympathy

(v) Beauty

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SECTION D (20 Marks)


Answer one (1) question from this section.

8. (a) Describe five characteristics of technical translation.

(b) Translate the following expressions into Kiswahili by considering the structure of the target language.

(i) Smoking causes lung cancer.

(ii) It is very dangerous to inhale carbon dioxide.

(iii) Friction can be reduced by putting oil on both surfaces.

(iv) The cure for tuberculosis was discovered recently.

(v) My uncle died of diabetes at the age of 55 years.

(vi) Blood tests conducted proved that John had leukaemia.

(vii) Sleeping sickness is caused by tsetse flies.

(viii) The sun, moon, stars and meteors are not planets.

(ix) Marriage is a covenant between two people.

(x) The public prosecutor told the court that the defendant was guilty of murder and asked for a death sentence.

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9. (a) Describe five important things for an interpreter to observe during interpretation.

(b) Interpret the following Kiswahili mini-speech into English language.

Ugaidi uko duniani kote. Magaidi wanaua watu wasio na hatia Ulaya, Marekani, Asia na katika nchi nyingi za Afrika ikiwemo Tanzania. Hapo zamani tulizoea kusikia mashambulizi ya kigaidi kupitia vyombo vya habari. Hivi sasa mambo yamebadilika kwani magaidi wamekwisha ishambulia nchi yetu. Kwanza waliushambulia Ubalozi wa Marekani Jijini Dar es Salaam. Baada ya hapo kumekuwepo na mashambulizi kadhaa na hasa katika Jiji la Arusha. Hivi karibuni, baada ya kuua watu West Gate nchini Kenya, magaidi wa Al Shabaab walidai kwamba wataishambulia pia nchi yetu. Watanzaniawenzangu, msitishike kamwe! Nataka kuwahakikishia kwamba vyombo vyetu vya ulinzi na usalama viko imara kupambana na kuwashinda hawa magaidi. Hata hivyo, napenda kusisitiza kwamba kila mmoja wetu anapaswa kuupiga vita ugaidi.

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