(For Both School and Private Candidates)

Time: 3 Hours Year: 2022


  1. This paper consists of sections A, B and C with a total of nine (9) questions.
  2. Answer all questions in sections A and B and three (3) questions from section C.
  3. Section A carries twenty (20) marks, section B thirty five (35) marks and section C carries forty five (45) marks.
  4. Cellular phones and any unauthorised materials are not allowed in the examination room.
  5. All drawings should be in pencil.
  6. Write your Examination Number on every page of your answer booklet(s).

SECTION A (20 Marks)

Answer all questions in this section.

1. For each of the items (i) - (xv), choose the correct answer from among the given alternatives and write its letter beside the item number in the answer booklet provided.

(i) Who studies the society's cultural system, behavior, beliefs and ideologies?

  1. Archaeologists 
  2. Linguists
  3. Anthropologists 
  4. Humanitarians
  5. Philanthropists
Choose Answer :

(ii) By 1914, European powers had managed to establish effective colonial control in Africa. In which decade was that year?

  1. First decade of the nineteenth century
  2. Fourteenth decade of the nineteenth century
  3. Nineteenth decade of the fourteenth century
  4. Second decade of the nineteenth century
  5. Second decade of the twentieth century
Choose Answer :

(iii) Which revolution was featured by fraternity, liberty and equality as its core ideas?

  1. Egyptian revolution 
  2. Industrial revolution
  3. Zanzibar revolution 
  4. Libyan revolution
  5. French revolution
Choose Answer :

(iv) Whose theory explains the 'origin of man by describing the changes that our ancestors undergone until they were like a modern man?

  1. Louis Leakey 
  2. Mary Leakey 
  3. David Livingstone 
  4. Australopithecus
  5. Charles Darwin
Choose Answer :

(v) Which nation could no longer exploit the United States of America after getting her political independence in 1776?

  1. Britain 
  2. Russia
  3. Germany 
  4. Japan
  5. France
Choose Answer :

(vi) Samora Machel and Augostino Neto took up arms to fight against foreign domination during the 1970s. Whose colonial rule were they fighting against?

  1. British 
  2. German
  3. French 
  4. Portuguese
  5. Belgian
Choose Answer :

(vii) What were the objectives of establishing national military institutions in Tanzania?

(i) To protect the country from external aggression

(ii) To promote internal security and integrity

(iii) To participate in national building activities

(iv) To urge states to conform to peaceful settlement of disputes

  1. (i), (ii) and (iv) 
  2. (i), (iii) and (ii)
  3. (i), (iii) and (iv) 
  4. (i) and (iv) only
  5. (ii), (iii) and (iv)
Choose Answer :

(viii) Which countries played an important role in the nationalist movement due to the question of land?

  1. Kenya, South Africa, Algeria and Zimbabwe
  2. Kenya, South Africa, Tanganyika and Mozambique
  3. Kenya, Tanganyika, Uganda and Mozambique
  4. Algeria, Zambia, Tanganyika and South Africa
  5. Tanganyika, Zanzibar, Uganda and Zimbabwe
Choose Answer :

(ix) Who was the first British man to round the Cape of Good Hope?

  1. Vasco da Gama 
  2. Bartholomew Diaz
  3. Francis Drake 
  4. Ferdinand Magellan
  5. David Livingstone
Choose Answer :

(x) Which nation purchased the Cape from the Netherlands for six million pounds sterling?

  1. Britain
  2. Belgium
  3. France
  4. Germany
  5. E Portugal
Choose Answer :

(xi) In which countries did armed struggle characterize their independence struggle?

  1. Zanzibar, Zimbabwe and Ghana
  2. Zimbabwe, Kenya and Mozambique
  3. Zimbabwe, South Africa and Tanganyika
  4. Kenya, Zimbabwe and Tanganyika
  5. Mozambique, Angola and Ghana
Choose Answer :

(xii) All of the following are true about Julius Nyerere except 

  1. He was one of the Pan-Africanism leaders.
  2. He was one of the founders of Organization of African Unity.
  3. He played a key role in the formation of United Nations Organization.
  4. He campaigned and supported black majority rule in South Africa. 
  5. He was one of the leaders of the Front Line States.
Choose Answer :

(xiii) Why the United States of America did not accept membership of the League of Nations though she pioneered its formation?

  1. She was invited as an overseer, thus she had no role to play
  2. She did not like to be involved in European issues
  3. She had a weakened economy due to the impact of the First World War
  4. She feared that Germany under Adolf Hitler would attack her
  5. She was still feeling the shame she suffered in the Berlin conference
Choose Answer :

(xiv) All of the following are true about Zimbabwe except

  1. Robert Mugabe declared unilateral independence in Zimbabwe.
  2. Ian Smith unilaterally declared independence in 1965.
  3. ZANU and ZAPU were the major political parties.
  4. Zimbabwe attained her independence in 1980. 
  5. Zimbabwe was a British colony.
Choose Answer :

(xv) Who named the Southern tip of Africa 'Cape of Good Hope?'

  1. Vasco da Gama
  2. Prince Henry
  3. Cecil Rhodes
  4. John Moffat
  5. Bartholomew Diaz
Choose Answer :

2. Match the responsibilities in List A with the corresponding leaders in List B by writing the letter of the correct response beside the item number in the answer booklet provided.

List A

List B

(i) He pioneered the idea of forming a stronger African organization in the 1990s.

(ii) He formulated 14 points of the League of Nations.

(iii) He ordered in the 'Final Solution' that the Jewish population should be eliminated.

(iv) The Italian fascist who provoked the Second World War.

(v) He chaired the conference which aimed at resolvin the conflicts among the European powers in 19 centur .

  1. Woodrow Wilson
  2. Otto von Bismarck
  3. David Livingstone
  4. Cecil Rhodes
  5. Adolf Hitler
  6. Muammar Gaddafi
  7. Benito Mussolini
  8. Carl Peters
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SECTION B (35 Marks)

Answer all questions in this section.

3. Answer the following questions briefly:

(i) Differentiate between mixed farming and shifting cultivation.

(ii) Why did the Maasai organize themselves in age set system?

(iii) What is the difference between 'Nyarubanja' and 'Ubugabire'?

(iv) How did population pressure in Natal region lead to Ngoni migration?

(v) Explain two demerits of feudalism.

(vi) Why HIV/AIDS is regarded as a burden to health services provision in Africa?

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4. Arrange the following statements in a chronological order by writing number I to 6 beside the item number in your answer booklet(s).

(i) Chief Lobengula and Mtwa Mkwawa resisted actively against the imposition of colonial rule in Africa.

(ii) Piet Retief and Jan Van Rensburg were the leaders of the trekking parties in South Africa.

(iii) David Livingstone was one of the influential individuals in Europe who encouraged the creation of overseas empires.

(iv) Kwame Nkrumah and Jomo Kenyatta were the most effective and vocal spokesmen for Africa during the Pan-Africanist cpnference held in Manchester.

(v) Julius Nyerere and Kenneth Kaunda were the prominent leaders of the Front Line States during decolonization in Southern Africa.

(vi) Presidents Benjamin Mkapa and Yoweri Museveni were the key leaders who signed the treaty to create the new East African Community.

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5. Draw a sketch map of Africa and locate the following by using roman numbers:

(i) A country whose military force took part in the military campaign against the forces of Idi Amin in 1978.

(ii) An East African country that had the only institution offering higher education until the 1960s.

(iii) A country which was connected by a new railway line from Tanzania through the assistance of the Chinese government.

(iv) A British colony that attained her political independence in 1957.

(v) A Portuguese colony that adopted a socialist economic strategy.

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SECTION C (45 Marks)

Answer three (3) questions from this section.

6. Explain six factors that determined the forms of decolonization in Africa.

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7. 'The discovery of fire was very beneficial to man from the Middle Stone Age to the Iron Age.' Justify this statement by giving six points.

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8. Why did France apply assimilation policy in her colonies in Africa? Explain by giving six points.

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9. 'Colonial economy had its own characteristics.' Substantiate this statement by giving six points.

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