(For Both School and Private Candidates)

Time: 3 Hours Year: 2021


  1. This paper consists of sections A, B and C with a total of nine (9) questions.
  2. Answer all questions in sections A and B and three (3) questions from section C.
  3. Section A carries twenty (20) marks, section B thirty five (35) marks and section C carries forty five (45) marks.
  4. Cellular phones and any unauthorised materials are not allowed in the examination room.
  5. All drawings should be in pencil.
  6. Write your Examination Number on every page of your answer booklet(s).

SECTION A (20 Marks) 
Answer all questions in this section.

1. For each of the items (i) — (xv), choose the correct answer from among the given alternatives and write its letter beside the item number in the answer booklet provided.

(i) Man's basic needs consist of

  1. food, clothing and television.
  2. food, water and soil. 
  3. shelter, medicine and food. 
  4. shelter, food and clothing.
  5. cars, food and television.
Choose Answer :

(ii) In Africa, Monarchies still exist in

  1. Nigeria and Botswana.
  2. South Africa and Saudi Arabia.
  3. Ethiopia and Ivory Coast.
  4. Algeria and Gambia.
  5. Morocco and Swaziland.
Choose Answer :

(iii) Archaeologists help us to know when and how men lived through the study of

  1. bones and tools. 
  2. tools and riddles. 
  3. stories and riddles.
  4. riddles and bones. 
  5. bones and music.
Choose Answer :

(iv) In which places were the method of remembering changes and historical events very common?

  1. In areas where there was famine and drought.
  2. In areas where there was written history.
  3. In areas where much of the history was not written.
  4. In areas where there was few European settlers.
  5. In areas where there were many agents of colonialism.
Choose Answer :

(v) When did industrial revolution take place in Europe?

  1. 1000s to 1200s 
  2. 1300s to 1400s 
  3. 1500s to 1650s
  4. 1890s to 1950s 
  5. 1750s to 1850s
Choose Answer :

(vi) The best example of the evolution of man is represented by the discoveries made at

  1. Fort Jesus. 
  2. Olduvai Gorge. 
  3. Bagamoyo.
  4. Uvinza. 
  5. Zanzibar.
Choose Answer :

(vii) Who migrated into East Africa from South Africa in the second half of the 19th century due to Mfecane wars?

  1. Arabs 
  2. Boers 
  3. Portuguese
  4. Ngoni 
  5. Nilotes
Choose Answer :

(viii) Which one was an effect of the arrival of the French in the Indian Ocean in the 18th century?

  1. Abolition of slavery and slave trade in East African coast.
  2. Establishment of legitimate trade on imported goods.
  3. Acceleration of the struggle for independence in Africa.
  4. Increase of slave labour in Reunion and Mauritius island.
  5. Formation of independent African churches.
Choose Answer :

(ix) Settler agriculture failed to be practised in Uganda when her eastern part was parcelled out to form part of

  1. East African Community.
  2. German East Africa territory.
  3. Western Uganda and Eastern Republic of Congo.
  4. Western Kenyan highlands.
  5. Western and Eastern Kenyan highlands.
Choose Answer :

(x) Tanganyika was handed over to Britain as a mandate territory by

  1. League of Nations. 
  2. Trusteeship territory.
  3. United Nations. 
  4. Pan-Africanism.
  5. Berlin conference.
Choose Answer :

(xi)Who were defeated by the East Africans through the help of the Oman Arabs?

  1. Ngoni from South Africa
  2. Germans from Europe
  3. Portuguese from Europe
  4. Boers from Holland
  5. Zimba from Zambia
Choose Answer :

(xii) The leader who is associated with the formation of the League of Nations is

  1. Adolf Hitler. 
  2. Otto von Bismarck.
  3. Woodrow Wilson. 
  4. David Livingstone.
  5. Carl Peters.
Choose Answer :

(xiii) Which societies in Africa waged wars against German invasion?

  1. Xhosa and Khoikhoi 
  2. Nandi and Hehe
  3. Nama and Herero 
  4. Zulu and Asante
  5. Shona and Ndebele
Choose Answer :

(xiv) During which age did Homo Erectus become a complete upright creature and could communicate through speech?

  1. Middle Stone Age 
  2. Late Stone Age
  3. Old Stone Age
  4. New Stone Age
  5. Iron Age
Choose Answer :

(xv) Which organ approves the United Nations budget?

  1. Security Council 
  2. International Court of Justice
  3. Secretariat 
  4. Economic and Social Council
  5. General Assembly
Choose Answer :

2. Match the descriptions in List A with the corresponding historical terms in List B by writing the letter of the correct response beside the item number in the answer booklet provided.

List A

List B

(i) A name given to the process of exchanging goods for goods.

(ii) A name given to the process of exchanging goods between people living in the same village or town.

(iii) A process that involved the exchange of goods between two different geographical regions.

(iv) A name of the trade that involved the exchange of goods between the people of Northern Africa and Western Africa.

(v) A name given to the trade that involved Africa, America and Europe before industrial revolution.

  1. Early trade contacts
  2. Barter trade
  3. Long distance trade
  4. Slave trade
  5. Local trade
  6. Legitimate trade
  7. Trans-Saharan trade
  8. Trans-Atlantic slave trade
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SECTION B (35 Marks) 
Answer all questions in this section.

3. Briefly answer the following questions:

  1. How did the establishment of colonialism lead to the collapse of Buganda Kingdom?
  2. Differentiate between nomadic pastoralism and sedentary pastoralism.
  3. Why did the nature of colonial economy in Portuguese colonies force Africans in those countries to use gun in demanding their political independence?
  4. Why did Germany cease to rule Tanganyika in 1919?
  5. What caused the Great Economic Depression of the 1920s to spread world­wide?
  6. Why did Idd Amin's seizure of power in Uganda lead to the collapse of the former East African Community?
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4,Arrange the following statements in chronological order by writing number 1 to 6 beside the item number.

  1. The period when most of man's tools were made of stone is called Stone Age.
  2. It is divided into Early, Middle and Late Stone Ages.
  3. In the Early Stone Age, chopping and pebble tools were made and used by man.
  4. Sharper tools were made during the Middle Stone Age.
  5. The use of iron tools increased the ability of man to produce more food.
  6. Such tools included spears, arrows, knives, needles and stone-picks.
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5.Draw a sketch map of the new East African Community and locate the following by using roman numbers:

  1. The member state whose ideology was Common Man's Charter.
  2. The country in which Socialism and Self Reliance became her ideology.
  3. The former French colony in which the 1994 genocide took place.
  4. The country in which Mau Mau movement occurred.
  5. The greatest slave market in East Africa which was closed in 1873.
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SECTION C (45 Marks) 

Answer three (3) questions from this section.

6.Explain six characteristics of the second exploitative mode of production.

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7."Indirect rule policy was very advantageous to the British." Justify this statement by using six points.

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8.Explain six techniques used to acquire slaves during slave trade.

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9.Examine six factors that determined the establishment of peasant agricultural system in colonial Africa.

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