(b) The items (iv) consist of four sentences which form a complete historical meaning. One of the sentences (A E) is missing. Identify the missing sentence and write its letter beside the item number.
(i) 1. The UN Secretariat headquarters is in New York.
3. It administers peacekeeping operations in many warring countries.
4. It organizes international conferences.
It is headed by the Secretary General.
It implements the Berlin conference resolutions.
It draws the annual budget of the UNO.
It elects Security Council members.
It recommends the admission of new members.
(ii) 1. The colonial agents came before the establishment of colonial rule in Africa.
2. These colonial agents included explorers, missionaries and traders.
3. The explorers supplied important information to their mother countries.
Prominent explorers included David Livingstone and John Speke.
Famous explorers in East Africa were Mungo Park and David Livingstone.
The earliest explorers in East Africa were Cecil Rhodes and Karl Peters.
The famous British explorer in Tanganyika was Karl Peters.
William Mackinnon was an explorer who headed Imperial British East African Comany.
(iii) 1. West Africans came into contact with European merchants during the early phase of development of capitalism.
2. The early phase of capitalism was called the phase of primitive accumulation of capital.
4. During this phase commerce was the most important activity.
The motives of European merchants were to stop slave trade.
West African societies benefited much from these early contacts.
In Europe it was known as the age of discovery and overseas expansion.
The red Indians for the first time came to trade in West Africa.
In this trade the European slaves were exchanged for African goods.
(iv) 1. Indirect rule was introduced in Africa by Fredrick Lugard.
3. The system was very cheap.
4. The system reduced resistance from the natives.
Africans used Jumbes and Akidas to represent their problems.
France applied this system in her colonies in Africa.
The system improved the living standard of the Africans.
The British preferred direct rule due to its efficiency.
The system helped the British to consolidate tribalism.
(v) 1. Colonial health services had a significant impact on African communities.
2. They reduced the infant mortality rate.
3. They reduced the numbers of women who died during childbirth.
Colonial health services concentrated in rural areas.
Colonial health services encouraged the use of traditional medicine.
There was equal distribution of health services during colonialism.
Medical services led to the higher population growth during colonialism.
Better hygiene practices led to the emergence of civil wars in Africa.