4. (a) Arrange the following statements in chronological order by writing number 1 to 5 beside the item number.
African nationalist politics in South Africa started with the formation of the South Africa Native National Congress (SANNC) in 1912.
African National Congress (ANC) led by Nelson Mandela established its armed wing known as "Umkhonto we Sizwe" (Spear of the Nation) which immediately embarked upon military operations within South Africa.
In 1949 the Youth League launched its "Programme of Action" which aimed at attainment of freedom from white domination.
The imposition of capitalist relations of production in South Africa, unlike other parts of the continent, is underlined by racism. This made nationalist struggles in South Africa to be more complicated and long.
In 1964, Nelson Mandela was arrested and sent to jail. Later in 1990 he was released and the majority rule was obtained in 1994.
(b) The items (i-v) consist of four sentences which form a complete historical meaning. One of the sentences (A - E) is incorrect. Identify the incorrect sentence and write its letter beside the item number.
(i) 1. Colonial education aimed at imparting capitalist ideology to the recipients.
2.Its content was designed to produce the colonial relations of production.
3. It provided only limited skills and emphasised obedience to the recipients.
It trained sons of chiefs so as to reproduce a royal European leadership.
It had series of examinations which were set abroad. Nobody could go to another stage without passing the examination.
It was based on racial segregations.
It had more males enrolled than females.
It aimed at serving the colonial state rather than indigenous people.
(ii) 1. One of the factors for the rise of African Nationalism was that USA reinforced her Open Door Policy and supported decolonization processes in Africa.
2. Pan-Africanism in its 1945 Manchester Congress also demanded blacks autonomy.
4. The independence of Asian countries such as India and Pakistan fuelled the process of decolonization in Africa.
USSR supported decolonization processes in Africa because of ideological reasons.
UNO was against decolonization and it strived for equality and human dignity.
Some Africans learnt from the World Wars how to participate in struggles.
The African elites became politically conscious and formed political parties.
Colonial intensive exploitation motivated African hatred and negative attitude against colonialism.
(iii) 1. Colonial economy in East Africa involved three systems of agriculture which were settler, peasant and plantation.
2.Peasant cash crop system was the backbone of the colonial production in Uganda.
3. The introduction of peasant economy in uganda was due to the fear of resistance from the peasants.
Some areas were thought unfit for white settlement in Uganda.
Governors such as Harry johnson preferred peasant agriculture.
Unlike other systems, peasant agriculture was cheap.
It was easy to open up larger agricultural farms in Uganda.
Kabaka disliked settlers to occupy the peasants land.
(iv) 1. Slave trade in Africa was stimulated by the external economic forces to meet the demands of West European capitalism.
2. In West and East Africa the activities of capturing and selling slaves involved African chiefs, Arab and Swahili traders.
4. In 19th century, the slave trade was abolished.
Development of industrial capitalism in Western Europe in the 19th century made slave trade useless.
Due to massive shipment of slaves, there was a scarcity of slaves in African continent by the 19th century.
Humanitarians argued against slave trade and slavery.
Due to American independence in 1776, European merchants could no longer transport slaves to America.
French Revolution contributed to its abolition.
(v) 1. Tanganyika achieved her independence in 1961.
2. Since independence she has been trying to solve her social, economic and political problems by initiating various policies and strategies.
3. Establishment of education for Self Reliance was one of the ways of solving her economic problems.
Nationalization of land in 1962 aimed at eliminating feudal systems to enable the majority to access land.
Building of infrastructures such as the Tanzania-Zambia railway had the purpose of facilitating smooth transportation in the country.
The formation of East Africa Community in 1960s aimed at increasing economic cooperation among East African countries.
Adaptation of one Party system in 1990s was a strategy of solving political problems by promoting the national unity within a country.
Arusha Declaration in 1967 aimed at building of the socialist nation free from exploitation.