(b) The items (i) - (iv) consist of four sentences which form a complete historical meaning. One sentence is missing. Identify the missing sentence from the sentences given after each set of items and write its letter beside the item number.
(i) 1. The First World War lasted from 1914 to 1918.
2. It was primarily a struggle between the major powers of Europe.
4. Although the First World War involved purely European issues, it was inevitable that the overseas empires of the two sides would be involved.
Britain, France and their allies were fighting against Germany, Austria and Turkey.
The killing of Franz Archduke became one of the long term causes of war.
Germans, France and Italy joined and fight against triple alliance of Britain, Russia and USA.
Tanganyika was to be under German rule after the war.
All European Nations struggled for colonies in the Balkan states.
(ii) 1. Indirect rule was introduced by Lugard in northern Nigeria.
2. It became necessary for British to find collaborators to colonise Africa.
4. The local Africans chiefs appointed their own officials but with approval of the British colonial officials.
German and Portuguese also applied indirect rule system of administration in their colonies.
Under the indirect rule African chiefs were instruments of colonial local government.
Under indirect rule the colonialists appointed Akidas and Jumbes to assist colonial officers.
The presence of many colonial officers enabled the introduction of indirect rule.
The presence of few settlers in Africa influenced the introduction of indirect rule in order to incorporate Africans in settler plantations.
(iii) 1. Just like their neighbours of Uganda and German East Africa, the Kenyans resisted the imposition of colonial rule.
3.The Manzrui dynasty and their supporters led the first armed uprising against the British occupation.
4. They hoped that after the departure of the Imperial British East African Company they might regain their independence.
Some local rulers collaborated with the imperialists while others resisted.
All Africans in Kenya were against imposition of colonial rule hence they resisted the imperialists.
The imperial British East African company of William MacKinnon became very famous and enabled many Africans in Kenya to accept colonial rule.
In some places Africans resisted the imperialists because they had suffered greatly from natural calamities.
The colonialists imported soldiers from abroad in order to silence Nandi resistance.
(iv) 1. Man learnt how to make iron tools about 3,000 years ago.
2. In Africa the knowledge of making and using iron tools developed at different times and different places.
3.It is believed that the first people to make and use iron were the people in Egypt and Ethiopia around 600 B.C.
The use of iron became very important for development of hunting and gathering in most African societies.
By the beginning of the Christian era the idea of iron was already developed along River Niger basin.
African pastoralist activity was accompanied with iron technology.
Crop and animal husbandry was a crucial turning point in the history of man.
Around 200 B.C. Meroe, Axum and Nok had become important iron smelting centres.
(v) 1. The first major area of contact between East Africa and capitalist world was trade.
3. Before 1850s, the major commodities sought from East Africa were slaves and ivory.
4. Slaves were destined for Gulf States to work in date plantations and others to Mauritius and Reunion islands to work in sugar plantations.
By 1845 all major capitalist powers had signed treaties of friendship with Sultan of Zanzibar in order to get slaves.
East Africa was integrated in the system of international trade through operation of merchant capital.
Like the rest of the continent, East Africa was grossly affected by the growth of monopoly capitalism.
Intensive competition and declining of home market led to drastic drop in profit.
Kilwa and Mozambique Island attracted much of trade from the southern interior of East Africa.