(For School Candidates Only)

Time: 3 Hours Wednesday, 05th October 2011 p.m.


  1. This paper consists of sections A, and C.
  2. Answer all questions in sections A and and three (3) questions from section C.
  3. Cellular phones are not allowed in the examination room.
  4. All drawings should be in pencil.
  5. Write your Examination Number on every page of your answer sheet(s).

SECTION A (20 Marks)
Answer all questions in this section.

1. For each of the items (i) - (x), choose the correct answer from among the given alternatives and write its letter beside the item number.

(i) Which is not true about History?

  1. History is a study of changes in the process of material production.
  2. History shows mans struggle against nature.
  3. History shows the changing relationship between human beings in the course of material production.
  4. History is a record of human activities.
  5. History is a study of great heroes.
Choose Answer :

(ii) Which among the following describes Homosapiens correctly?

  1. Thinking man. 
  2. Tool-maker.
  3. Early man.
  4. Modern man.
  5. Man at early Stone Age.
Choose Answer :

(iii) Which of the following was not a reason for the coming of Europeans to Africa before 1800? 

  1. To find an alternative route to India and Far East.
  2. To abolish slave trade and introduce Christianity. 
  3. o find a new source of trade.
  4. To look for gold, silver and spices in Africa and Asia.
  5. To capture and control the Indian Ocean trade.
Choose Answer :

(iv) The leader of Chimurenga uprising of 1896-1897 in Rhodesia were 

  1. Mkwati and Kinjekitile
  2. Siginyamatish and Lobengula.
  3. Mkwati and Siginyamatish.
  4. Mkwati and Lobengula.
  5. Lobengula and Rumunguru.
Choose Answer :

(v) The disintegration of Soviet Union influenced the 

  1. demise of socialism and monopartism.
  2. collapse of the League of Nations.
  3. end of VETO system in the UNO.
  4. disintegration of the Non-Alignment Movement.
  5. fragmentation of NATO.
Choose Answer :

(vi) Which of the following statements is true about the ancient Empire of Mali? 

  1. It first came into power with the defeat of Sundiata by Sumanguru.
  2. It was overthrown by invasion from Ghana.
  3. It extended its boundaries as far as Lake Chad.
  4. It grew rich by controlling Trans Saharan trade.
  5. It was formed after the collapse of Songhai Empire.
Choose Answer :

(vii) Menelick II became Emperor of Ethiopia in

  1. 1895 
  2. 1886 
  3. 1889
  4. 1893 
  5. 1896
Choose Answer :

(viii) The idea of forming an organisation of Non Aligned Countries originated at

  1. Bandung Afro Asian Congress in 1955.
  2. Bandung Afro Asian Congress in 1961. 
  3. Belgrade Yugoslavia in 1955.
  4. Belgrade Yugoslavia in 1961.
  5. United Socialist Union of Russia in 1961
Choose Answer :

(ix) Which of the following was not encouraged by the policies of Ujamaa in Tanzania? 

  1. The cooperative movement.
  2. Regional development for equity.
  3. Villagisation Camps.
  4. Peoples self projects.
  5. Peoples development through self reliance.
Choose Answer :

(x) The Trans Atlantic slave trade had the following outcome except 

  1. loss of African culture.
  2. loss of African technology.
  3. loss of manpower in Africa.
  4. the growth of forest states of Benin, Oyo and Ife.
  5. scramble of Africa by European nations
Choose Answer :

2. Match the stems in List A with the correct responses in List B by writing the letter of the response beside the item number.


(i) George Goldie

(ii) Mputa Maseko

(iii) Harry Johnson

(iv) Munyigumba

(v) Hassan bin Omani Makunganya

(vi) Otto Von Bismarck

(vii) Joseph Merinyo

(viii) Martin Kayamba

(ix) Kalonga Muzura

(x) Nzinga Nkuwu

  1. Germany trader in Kilimanjaro after 1886.
  2. The chief of Hehe.
  3. Led a group of Ngoni which settled in Ufipa.
  4. Formed Tanganyika Territory civil service association.
  5. The Kilimanjaro Native Planters Association of 1925.
  6. Led resistance against the Germany in Tanganyika.
  7. Usambara Native Growers Association of 1931.
  8. Baptized Don Affonso by Portuguese in Congo.
  9. Organized Mwenemutapa kingdom towards its growth and expansion.
  10. Resisted Germany colonial rule in Kenya.
  11. Loyal Niger Company.
  12. Baptized John I.
  13. Imperial British East African Company.
  14. Organized Malavi kingdom to highest stage of its growth and expansion.
  15. Formed Tanganyika Federation of labour.
  16. Berlin Conference.
  17. Led resistance against British penetration in the interior of East Africa.
  18. Led a group of Ngoni which settled at Mngongoma in Tanganyika.
  19. A British trader in Kilimanjaro before 1886.
  20.  The chief of Bena.
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SECTION B (20 Marks )

Answer all questions in this section.

3. (a) Draw a sketch map of Africa and on it show the following sites of African resistances:

(i) Nama and Herero 

(ii) Mandika 

(iii) Abushiri-Bwana Hen revolts

(iv) Adowa 

(v) Chimurenga.

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(b) For each resistance in (a) above, mention the European nations which were resisted by Africans.

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(a) Arrange the following statements in chronological order by writing number 1 to 5 beside the item number.

  1. The majimaji war was unique in the way it united a number of different tribes in common rebellion.
  2. The German authorities were surprised when their headquarters and officials were attacked.
  3. The last and most serious revolt against German rule broke out in July 1905.
  4. The immediate cause of discontent was the governments cotton scheme.
  5. A prophet named Kinjekitile of Ngarambe declared that magic water will turn bullets into water.
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(b) The items (i) - (iv) consist of four sentences which form a complete historical meaning. One sentence is missing. Identify the missing sentence from the sentences given after each set of items and write its letter beside the item number.

(i) 1. The First World War lasted from 1914 to 1918.

2. It was primarily a struggle between the major powers of Europe.

3.                               .

4. Although the First World War involved purely European issues, it was inevitable
that the overseas empires of the two sides would be involved. 

  1. Britain, France and their allies were fighting against Germany, Austria and Turkey.
  2. The killing of Franz Archduke became one of the long term causes of war. 
  3. Germans, France and Italy joined and fight against triple alliance of
    Britain, Russia and USA. 
  4. Tanganyika was to be under German rule after the war.
  5. All European Nations struggled for colonies in the Balkan states.

(ii) 1. Indirect rule was introduced by Lugard in northern Nigeria.

2. It became necessary for British to find collaborators to colonise Africa.

3.                                   .

4. The local Africans chiefs appointed their own officials but with approval of the British colonial officials.

  1. German and Portuguese also applied indirect rule system of administration in their colonies.
  2. Under the indirect rule African chiefs were instruments of colonial local government.
  3. Under indirect rule the colonialists appointed Akidas and Jumbes to assist colonial officers.
  4. The presence of many colonial officers enabled the introduction of indirect rule.
  5. The presence of few settlers in Africa influenced the introduction of indirect rule in order to incorporate Africans in settler plantations.

(iii) 1. Just like their neighbours of Uganda and German East Africa, the Kenyans resisted the imposition of colonial rule.

2.                                         .

3.The Manzrui dynasty and their supporters led the first armed uprising against the British occupation.

4. They hoped that after the departure of the Imperial British East African Company they might regain their independence.

  1. Some local rulers collaborated with the imperialists while others resisted.
  2. All Africans in Kenya were against imposition of colonial rule hence they resisted the imperialists.
  3. The imperial British East African company of William MacKinnon became very famous and enabled many Africans in Kenya to accept colonial rule.
  4. In some places Africans resisted the imperialists because they had suffered greatly from natural calamities.
  5. The colonialists imported soldiers from abroad in order to silence Nandi resistance.

(iv) 1. Man learnt how to make iron tools about 3,000 years ago.

2. In Africa the knowledge of making and using iron tools developed at different times and different places.

3.It is believed that the first people to make and use iron were the people in Egypt and Ethiopia around 600 B.C.


  1. The use of iron became very important for development of hunting and gathering in most African societies.
  2. By the beginning of the Christian era the idea of iron was already developed along River Niger basin.
  3. African pastoralist activity was accompanied with iron technology.
  4. Crop and animal husbandry was a crucial turning point in the history of man.
  5. Around 200 B.C. Meroe, Axum and Nok had become important iron smelting centres.

(v) 1. The first major area of contact between East Africa and capitalist world was

2.                          .

3. Before 1850s, the major commodities sought from East Africa were slaves and

4. Slaves were destined for Gulf States to work in date plantations and others to
Mauritius and Reunion islands to work in sugar plantations. 

  1. By 1845 all major capitalist powers had signed treaties of friendship with Sultan of Zanzibar in order to get slaves.
  2. East Africa was integrated in the system of international trade through operation of merchant capital.
  3. Like the rest of the continent, East Africa was grossly affected by the growth of monopoly capitalism.
  4. Intensive competition and declining of home market led to drastic drop in profit.
  5. Kilwa and Mozambique Island attracted much of trade from the southern interior of East Africa.
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SECTION C (60 Marks)
Answer three (3) questions from this section.  

5. Account for six reasons that led to the scramble for and partition of Africa in the second half of the 19th century.

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6. Analyse eight impacts of coastal based long distance trade system on social, political and economic development of East African societies during the 19th century.

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7. Elaborate six ways in which the Zanzibar Revolution brought positive changes in the living conditions of the people of Isles.

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8. Examine eight challenges of Non Aligned organisation.

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9. "The independence of Ghana of 1957 strengthened the struggle for independence for other African States." Justify by giving six relevant points.

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10. Discuss the three stages through which slave trade was abolished in East Africa during the 19th century.

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