(For Both School and Private Candidates)

Time: 3 Hours Year: 2008


1. For each of the items (i) — (x) choose the correct answer among the given alternatives and write its letter beside the item number.

(i)Human activities against nature and production relations are fully understood through the study of:





E. Archives

Choose Answer :

(ii)Man started to be skillful and tool maker at the stage of:

A.Homo Sapiens

B.Homo Erectus

C.Homo habilis

D.Modern apes

E. Zinjanthropus

Choose Answer :

(iii)The growth and expansion of Songhai Empire was a result of:

A.geographical position and Equatorial favourable climate

B.expansion of Gao Empire through conquering neighbouring states

C.the emergence of Mansa Musa as a strong leader

D.development of iron technology

E.development of Triangular trade

Choose Answer :

(iv)The growth and expansion of Ethiopia Empire started from the 4th century under the reign of:

A.King Menelik Il

B.King Solomoni

C.King Theodore

D.King Ezana

E.King Haille Selassie

Choose Answer :

(v)During colonial period, provision of social services was not given priority to Africans because:

A.Arabs and Portuguese had provided social services before colonialism.

B.Africans refused modernity. 

C. Africans had all social services.

D. social services were part of profit to European capitalists. 

E. social services were not part of profit to European capitalists.

Choose Answer :

(vi)Which of the following sectors of colonial economy favoured Europeans and Asians in Africa during colonial period? 

A. Education, health, water, housing and roads.

B.Agriculture, mining, financial institutions, transport and commerce.

C.Agricultural schemes, labour bureaus and trade. 

D. Industry, communication, harbours and banks.

E. Transportation, health, mining, electricity and water services.

Choose Answer :

(vii)Some areas in Africa experienced more intensive scramble than others in the 19 th century because they:

A.had no active Africans to resist colonialism. 

B. were still far behind in development. 

C. were good for hunting and gathering fruits.

D.had Mediterranean climate favourable for Europeans.

E.were economically strategic.

Choose Answer :

(viii)Independent African states made attempt to increase food crops along cash crops of which Tanzania expressed the policy of:

A.Ujamaa villages

B.Musoma villages

C.Iringa resolution

D.Arusha declaration

E.Zanzibar resolution

Choose Answer :

(ix)The British exercised direct rule policy in some parts of Zimbabwe because:

A.It was expensive to administer.

B.The natives and traditional chiefs opposed colonial rule. 

C. Zimbabwe was dominated by centralized states. 

D. Zimbabwe had enough experienced personnel.

E. The British were afraid of eliminating the local administrative set up.

Choose Answer :

(x)The Jihad war in East Africa under Othman dan Fodio, Alhaj Omar and Ahmed Seku resulted into:

A.Formation of big empires like Mandinka and the Sokoto Caliphate

B.Formation of big empires like Mali and Songhai

C.Creation of small political entities 

D. Formation of the state of Nigeria

E. Disintegration of weaker states at the coast of West Africa.

Choose Answer :

2. Match the items in Column I with the corresponding historical events in Column Il by writing the letter of the correct event beside the number of the item.




ii. 1652

iii.The Dutch East Indian Company

iv.Cape of Good Hope


vi.The British 

vii. The Boer Trek 

viii. Mfecane 

ix. Moshoeshoe

x. The Ngoni

  1. The British and control of the Cape
  2. The Dutch made permanent settlement under Jan van Riebeeck at the Cape
  3. The earliest inhabitants of the Cape
  4. The earliest inhabitants of Southern Africa
  5. The first trading company which set a regular supply station at the Cape
  6. The trading company for the Far East
  7. Took place from 1836-1854
  8. The Drakensberg mountains
  9. The Voortrekkers
  10. .Took place from 1800 — 1850
  11. Created new stations in Southern Africa
  12. Leaders of the Ndebele Kingdom
  13. Expansion of Zulu under Shaka 
  14. Founded the Sotho Kingdom
  15. Founded the Shona Kingdom.
  16. Moved to Central Africa under Zwangendaba
  17. Introduced new methods of fighting in the Sotho Kingdom
  18. Introduced Merino sheep in South Africa
  19. Introduced barter trade in South Africa
  20. An early important region for European commerce in South Africa.
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3.(a) Draw a sketch map showing the Trans-Saharan trade routes of Western Sudanic states and indicate the major trade routes with trading centres of Sijilmasa, Taghaza, Timbuktu, Tripoli and Ghat.

(b) Mention five (5) trade items involved in the Trans-Saharan trade.

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4.(a) One of the following statements is not historically correct. Choose it and write its letter beside the item number.

(i) A. The current East African Community dates its historical roots of the British intentions after the Second World War.

B.Britain was interested in Uganda because it was situated at the head of the Nile waters.

C.The presence of Makerere University formed a part of regional intellectual elite in East Africa. 

D. Uganda is accessible to sea ways

E. In Kenya the Nairobi University forms intellectual elite.

(i) A. By AD 1000 Iron technology began to appear widely in East Africa 

B. Iron technology revolutionized agriculture

C.Iron Age replaced Stone Age.

D.Hunting and gathering societies did not use iron tools until AD 2000

E.The Nok, Axum and Meroe became famous areas for iron smelting.

(iii) A. Iron tools contributed to the economic specialization.

B.Iron tools increased military operations and expansion of states by the 19th century.

C.The invention of fire had nothing to do with protection of man against wild animals.

D.With fire and iron tools, man was able to clear large forests for farming.

E.Some of the tools made from the invention of iron were spears, hoes and axes.

(iv) A. The Berlin Conference of 1844/85 was attended by Ethiopian representatives.

B.Chancellor Otto Von Bismarck chaired the Berlin Conference of 1884/85.

C.The resolutions of Berlin Conference were collectively a statement to colonize Africa.

D.One-sided treaties made by explorers in Africa helped the conference to identify areas of exploitation.

E. USA attended the Berlin Conference as an observer.

(v) A. Africa had its own political organizations before the coming of the colonialists.

B.Technologically, African societies had small scale industries before the 19th century.

C.Many African societies had education systems which were transferred by elders from one generation to another by the 16th century.

D.Without colonial intervention, Africa would have no history.

E.In initiation Africans had their own instructors for the youth.

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(b) There are five (5) mixed historical events. Arrange them in chronological order starting from the first to the last.

(i) Dr. David Livingstone opened up Africa to Britain through his first and second journeys to Africa.

(ii) Sultan Seyyid Said shifted his capital from Oman to Zanzibar during the first half of the nineteenth century.

(iii) Captain Vasco Da Gama encouraged the Portuguese to exploit Africa after his voyage.

(iv)German Carl Peters signed a one-sided treaty with chief Mangungo of Msovero.

(v) Henry Morton Stanley found Dr. David Livingstone at Ujiji to assure the British Empire that its eye-opener was still collecting data for imperialists.

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5.Discuss the role played by the nationalist parties in the struggle for independence in Africa.

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6.With concrete examples from Tanzania assess the factors that made independent African states change their social, political and economic outlook a few years after independence.

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7.Show how the Portuguese disrupted the development of trade in the Indian Ocean up to the 17th century.

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8.The Maji — Maji war of 1905 - 1907 in Tanganyika remains a symbol of the African struggle against colonial rule. Justify.

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9.Analyze the problems which faced Uganda during the nationalistic struggles.

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10.Assess the major changes in man's way of life during the late Stone Age in Africa.

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