(For Both School and Private Candidates)

Time: 3 Hours Year: 2003


1. For each of the items (i) - (x) choose the correct answer from among the given alternatives and write its letter beside the item number.

(i)The appearance of both Zinjanthropus and Homohabilis marked the beginning of a period in man's history known as:

A. Neolithic Age

B. Modernization Age

C. Early Stone Age

D. Middle Stone Age

E. Pre-colonial Period

Choose Answer :

(ii)The abolition of Slave Trade had the following immediate impact on African societies:-

A. Increased penetration of Europeans whose activities led to colonization of Africa.

B. Expansion of clove and coconut plantations in Zanzibar by Oman Arabs.

C. Rise of indigenous African merchant and ruling classes.

D. Emergence of Arab settlements along the East African coast and islands.

E. Decline of the Trans-Saharan Trade and eventually fall of the Sudanic States.

Choose Answer :

(iii)The colonial imperial chartered companies failed in their mission to rule African colonies because:

A. Other European companies were against them.

B. African chiefs refused to work with the company administrators.

C. Imperialist states were too far to support them during resistances.

D. The colonies were producing less and therefore were not profitable.

E. They had little capital and skilled manpower to run colonial administration.

Choose Answer :

(iv) The term "Apartheid" as was applied to South African societies meant:

A. Colour bar between whites and the blacks

B. Separate development among South African races

C. No voting right for the Africans

D. The best land to be reserved for whites

E. Creation of settlements for Africans termed Bantustans.

Choose Answer :

(v) One of the following wars demonstrated unity and self determination among Africans in the desire to liberate themselves from foreign rule in the early 20th century.

A. Mau Mau

B. Chimurenga

C. Mfecane

D. Maji Maji

E. Afro-Boer

Choose Answer :

(vi)The title given to the King of the Oyo Empire in West Africa was

A. Alafin

B. Oba

C. Asantehane

D. Nzinga

E. Emir

Choose Answer :

(vii)Which of the following is not a factor for Arab-Jews conflict in the Middle East?

A.Camp David Accord of 1978 between Egypt and Israel

B.Creation of Israel out of Palestine in 1948 against the Arab wishes

C.Jordan valley occupied by Israel

D.Holly city of Jerusalem, which both Arabs and Jews want to control

E.Occupied Arab lands by Israel following the 1967 war between the Arabs and the Jews.

Choose Answer :

(viii) In promoting colonial plantation agriculture in Tanganyika, the British:

A. Encouraged settlers to pay high wages to migrant labourers.

B.Encouraged the peasants to grow sisal.

C.Encouraged large scale production of all major cash crops.

D.Created means of ensuring constant supply of migrant labourers.

E.Increased prices for African plantation farmers.

Choose Answer :

(ix)The United Nations specialized agency responsible for human settlement is the:





Choose Answer :

(x)The Lusaka Accord of 1980 established the following organization:


B. Frontline States 


D. Mulungushi Club 


Choose Answer :

2. (a)Match the items in List A with the correct in List B by writing the letter of the response beside the item number.


(i) Late Stone Age

(ii) Assimilation

(iii) The Treaty of Ucciali/WichaIe

(iv) Microliths

(v) Pombeiros


A. An African comprador class, which opposed the abolition of slave trade.

B. Smaller, refined stone tools made by man during the Middle Stone Age.

C. Early traders in Angola and Congo.

D. Beginning of crop husbandry and domestication of animals.

E. 1880 - 1900.

F. The Italians and Emperor Menelik II.

G. One of the factors for the rise of Mali Empire.

H. A term used to explain the French indirect rule system.

I. The stone tools used by man during the Early Stone Age.

J. A policy aimed at promoting French language, attitude to work and culture on the colonial subjects.

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(b)Arrange the following statements in a chronological order.

(i) Out of the Accra Conference two rival groups emerged, namely the Casablanca and Brazzaville groups.image

(ii) The Organization of African Unity (OAU) was a direct result of Pan Africanism.

(iii) The Monrovia group was formed to reconcile the two groups.

(iv) It was the fulfillment of the dream of African unity, cherished by nationalists like Kwame Nkrumah who organized the first Accra Conference for all independent African states in 1958.

(v) This reconciliation led to the formation of the Organization of African Unity (OAU).

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3. The time chart below shows dates in Column I and the events in Column Il. Match the dates in column I with the corresponding events by writing the letter of the event beside the number of the date. 



(i) 1498

(ii) 1698 

(iii) 1846

(iv) 1879

(v) 1888

(vi) 1895





  1. Capture of Fort Jesus by Arabs.
  2. The first socialist revolution took place in Russia.
  3. Kilwa was attacked by the Zimba.
  4. Vasco da Gama successfully reached India after going around the Southern Cape of Africa.
  5. The closure of the slave market in Zanzibar.
  6. British occupation of the Cape of South Africa.
  7. Legitimate trade replaced slave trade.
  8. Shift of Seyyid Said's capital from Muscat to Zanzibar.
  9. Johann Krapf opened the first mission station at Rabai in Mombasa.
  10. Mkwawa's head was returned from Germany.
  11. Anglo-Zulu war in South Africa.
  12. President Obote announced the first effective steps of nationalization of private property in Uganda.
  13. The East African High Commission changed its name to the East African Protectorate.
  14. Assassination of Eduardo Mondlane who was the first president of FRELIMO.
  15. Pronouncement of Education for Self-Reliance.
  16. Robert Moffat signed a treaty with King Lobengula.
  17. Introduction of the Burns Constitution in the Gold Coast.
  18. The British government assumed responsibility for the East African Protectorate.
  19. The Nyasaland African Congress (NAC) was formed.
  20. Discovery of sea route to America by Christopher Columbus.


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4. Each of the following paragraphs is supposed to have five (5) sentences, which form a complete historical narrative. One of the sentences is missing. Identify the missing sentence from the sentences listed below each paragraph. The sentences are labelled A to E. Write the letter of the missing sentence beside the item number.

(i) 1. The art of making iron was one of the great discoveries, which shaped man's social and economic development.

2. Those who involved themselves in that industry were called blacksmiths.

3.  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4.The knowledge of iron working was kept secret in all societies in order to maintain monopoly over it.

5.After sometime it was made a religious thing, i.e. it was ritualized.

A.Iron was used in making luxury articles.

B.Iron weapons enabled Africans to defeat Europeans during colonization.

C.Africans used their iron in making railway lines.

D.Blacksmiths learned how to identify rocks containing iron ore.

E.This discovery resulted in the establishment of large iron and steel industries in East Africa in the 18th C.

(ii)1. The Berlin Conference was convened in November 1884 by Chancellor Bismarck of Germany.

2.It was attended by all major European powers.

3.The aim of the conference was to avoid war over colonial possessions. 

4.  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5. That means that each claimed area had to be put under the control of the claiming power.

A.It also established the principle of effective occupation.

B.Nigeria represented African outcries. C. King Leopold was given Uganda and Congo. D. It brought slave trade to an end.

E. Company rule in the colonies was discouraged.

(iii)1. Archaeology is a science that deals with the excavation of fossils, image ancient tools and other artifacts.

2.It is a branch of science which studies pre-historic events, often using laboratory testing of evidence. 

3.  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4.It is thus a highly specialized way of studying the past.

5.Major archaeological sites in East Africa include Olduvai Gorge, Rusinga Island, Olorgesailie and Nsongezi.

A.It is also used in studying and analyzing language.

B.Archeological information is sometimes obtained through the word of mouth.

C.It can also be defined as the study of modern cultural institutions. imageD. It is the only reliable source of historical information.

E. It is most useful where written sources are lacking or not decisive.

(iv)I. The Maji Maji war began in July 1905 at Matumbi in South-eastern Tanganyika.

2.  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3. African warriors faced the Germans with the belief that magic water would make them bullet proof.

4.Attacks were made on European missions, plantations and government offices.

5.By 1906 all the area south of River Rufiji was engaged in the war.

A.In 1907 African warriors managed to liberate the area south of River Rufiji.

B.People were encouraged by some magic water given by Kinjekitile Ngwale.

C.The rebellion was caused by confiscation of Mbunga cattle by the Germans.

D.Africans used this war to test their newly discovered weapons.image

E.German bullets killed Africans who did not have enough belief in that magic water.

(v) 1. According to the Anglo-German Agreement of 1890, Germany recognized Uganda to be under the British control.

2.Germany gave up Witu to the British.

3.Germany accepted British protectorate over Zanzibar.

4.Germany took over the 16 km coastal strip from the Sultan of Zanzibar. 

5.  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

A.The Sultan of Zanzibar was given the monopoly of slave trade in East Africa.

B.The British took Rwanda and Burundi.

C.Tsavo Game Reserve came under the control of the Germans

D.Britain gave to Germany Alsace and Loraine.

E.Britain gave to Germany an Island known as Heligoland in the North Sea in Europe.

(vi)1. The French used the policy of assimilation in their colonies.

2.  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.Thus, every aspect of African life, namely social, cultural, political and economic had to be changed.

4.The most powerful tools of assimilation were education and training.

5.The policy was based on the doctrine of equality of men as advocated by the French revolutionaries of the 18th century.

A.The policy involved the transfer of loyal Africans to France.

B.The assimilated Africans became Regional Commissioners in French colonies.

C.After fulfilling some conditions, an African was turned into a Senegalese citizen.

D.The policy aimed to transform Africans into French citizens.

E.An assimilated African was protected by French laws but was not allowed to contest for elections to the French parliament.

(vii)1.  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.The major goal of the trusteeship system was to prepare these territories for independence.

3.All trusteeship territories in Africa were areas formally controlled by Germany before her defeat in the First World War.

4.After the war, these territories, which were called Mandate Territories under the League of Nations, came to be known as Trusteeship Territories under the U.N.O.

5.By the early 1980s all Trusteeship Territories had gained their independence, except Namibia, which became independent in 1990.

A.Togo and Chad were trusteeship territories in West Africa.

B.The U.N.O opened a training college in New York for politicians from trusteeship territories.

C.Jomo Kenyatta used the trusteeship status of Kenya to demand independence of his country.

D.The Trusteeship Council of the U.N.O was formed to supervise the administration of trusteeship territories.

E.Tanganyika refused to be a trusteeship territory that is why she attained her independence earlier than Kenya and Uganda.

(viii) 1. The Chimurenga war was a N debele-Shona uprising against the British South Africa Company in Southern Rhodesia.

2.The rebellion first broke out in Matebeleland, and in less than four months, the Shona had joined the Ndebele.

3.The rebellion had great effect on both Africans and the British. 

4.  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5. Many Africans died from the White man's bullets and others from hunger and famine.

A.This war resulted into Shona and Ndebele independence.

B.The British South Africa Company decided to leave Southern Rhodesia.

C.The Africans lost more in the war than the British. D. The British lost 200 company officials.

E. The Ndebele and Shona people were led by King Lobengula.

(ix) 1. The colonial economy in East Africa was externally oriented.

2.It was based on the export of raw materials and import of cheap consumer goods.

3.Many peasants were forced into wage labour in mines and plantations. 

4.  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5. The commercial sector was firmly controlled by Asians.

A.The industrial sector in the colonies was not adequately developed.

B.It greatly helped the African peasants.

C.Peasant producers received satisfactory returns.

D.Traditional African industries were developed, even though slowly.

E.Peasants immediately responded to cash economy.

(x) 1. On 7th July 1954 TAA which had semi-political objectives was transformed into full fledged political party called TANU.

2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.It educated the people on unity and did away with divisive obstacles such as tribalism, racialism and religious differences.

4.It got support from different popular associations.

5.It also mobilized people to fight for national independence.

A.TANU aimed at attainment of national independence.

B.TANU was made the sole political party in Tanganyika before 1960.

C.It was supported by rich Indian merchants. 

D. Most TAA members refused to join TANU.

E. Its leaders wanted Tanganyika to have association with Britain as an overseas territory.

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5.Discuss the factors for the rise of the ancient Egyptian states.

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6.How did the colonial state uphold the interests of white settlers in Kenya?

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7.Show the contribution made by independent churches and early welfare associations towards the development of modern nationalism in Africa.

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8.Why was the struggle to eliminate apartheid in South Africa difficult and prolonged?

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9.Assess the achievement of the Organization of African Unity (OAU) in the light of its original objectives.

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10.Identify and explain the source of the Middle East crisis and show the position of the OAU on the conflict.

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