(For Both School and Private Candidates)

Time: 3 Hours Year: 2003


1. For the items (i) - (x) choose the correct answer from among the given alternatives and write its letter beside the item number.

(i)Which of the following is not a normal function of museums?

A. Keeping both objects and writings about certain historical facts.

B.Symbol of small towns as well as large cities.

C.Source of amusement.

D.Preserving written information.

E.Educational dissemination centres.

Choose Answer :

(ii)The decline of the East African city states was brought about by the following factors except:

A.decline in state prosperity resulting from gold trade.

B.looting and plundering of accumulated wealth by the Portuguese.

C.the N goni invasion.

D.conflicts within the states.

E.frequent wars against the invading Portuguese.

Choose Answer :

(iii)Which of the following was not the effect of the 19th century Jihad ofUsman dan Fodio in Western Sudan?

A.It speeded up the spread of Islam.

B.It inspired the creation of large political units.

C. It stimulated studies in Islam.

D.It strengthened the influence of Islamic ideology on state affairs.

E.For a while it reduced non-Islamic practices in state administration.

Choose Answer :

(iv)Which of the following statements is not true of pre-colonial African societies in general?

A.They were more or less of the same level of social and political development.

B.Segmentary political organizations were common in most of them.

C.Long and Short distance trade had developed in many parts of the continent.

D.Most people lived in rural areas.

E.Some societies developed state structures, others lacked such structures.

Choose Answer :

(v)The Berlin Conference of 1884 — 85 had the following resolutions except:

A.Participants agreed that major river basins would be free for all to trade in.

B.Agreement was reached that all European powers would stop the slave trade in their spheres of influence in Africa. image

C.All colonizing powers were required to establish effective control over their claimed territories.

D.The participating powers agreed to settle any subsequent conflicts through bilateral agreements between the respective powers.

E.The map of colonial Africa was completed, never to be touched again before independence.

Choose Answer :

(vi)Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI) is a term used to denote:

A. Independence given illegally by Britain to settlers in Rhodesia.

B.The white settlers in Rhodesia declaring themselves independent from the authority of Britain.

C.Britain refusing to give independence to settlers in Rhodesia.

D.Settlers in Rhodesia acquiring independence from Britain by force.

E.Rhodesian white settlers objecting to the British intention to hand over the country to the majority blacks.

Choose Answer :

(vii)German and British companies failed to rule East Africa because:

A. They had little capital and personnel for administering the area.

B. Other European companies were against them.

C. African Chiefs refused to cooperate with the company directors.

D. Their home governments were not willing to help them.

E. They were all defeated in the colonial war of resistance.

Choose Answer :

(viii)The main objective of the colonial powers in acquiring colonies in Africa was to:

A.Secure naval bases.

B.Control African human and natural resources.

C. Civilize the backward African people.

D.Establish white settlements in foreign lands.

E.Transfer modern technology to Africa.

Choose Answer :

(ix)In 1967, the three EastAfrican countries formed the East African Community in order to:

A.bring about East African Federation.

B. end hostility between them.

C.develop economic cooperation between them.

D.promote Kiswahili in the three East African countries.

E.share the resources available in the region equally.

Choose Answer :

(x)The outbreak of Mau Mau in Kenya in the 1950s indicated that:

A.The settlers were in full control of Kenyan economy.

B.Africans in Kenya were not united against the white settlers.

C.Jomo Kenyatta was the likely person to lead Kenya to independence.

D.Kenyans were ready to sacrifice their lives for the liberation of their land.

E.Africa could only be liberated from colonial control through armed struggle.

Choose Answer :

2.(a) Match the items in List A with the correct responses in List B by writing the letter of the corresponding response beside the item number.


(i)Pan Africanism

(ii)The Tuta


(iv)Patriotic Front



A.Political coalition between ZANU and ZAPU in Zimbabwe.

B.An important area used by the Sandawe people to conduct divine services.

C.Stimulate formulation of the Non Alignment Movement.

D.A unifying movement between African intellectuals and people of African origin in America and Caribbean.

E.A branch of Ngoni immigrants who settled north of modern Tabora. F. Collection of public and private documents.

G.An organization of five front line states for the liberation of Southern Africa.

H.Opposed French colonial advance in the Upper Niger.

I.A place where the British army suffered a humiliating defeat against the Zulu forces.

J. Places created for preserving historical information.

K. A political unity composed of a heterogeneous population centrally image governed.

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(b) Arrange the following statements in a chronological order:

(i)The Oman Sultanate greatly stimulated the expansion of trade in East Africa.

(ii)It introduced clove plantations in Zanzibar. The major impact of this was that the local African masses — Wahadimu and Watumbatu were virtually robbed of the best arable land and turned into serfs and tenants.

(iii)This was after Seyyid Said had shifted his capital from Muscat to Zanzibar in 1840.

(iv)Effective Oman control in Africa was established during the second half of the 19th century.

(v)In this period he was able to establish a more uniform political control along the coast by appointing Liwalis to govern the city states on his behalf.

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3.Match the dates in Column I with the corresponding historical events in Column Il by writing the letter of the event beside the number of the date.


(i) 1587

(ii) 1650









A.Coming of the Ngoni to East Africa

B.Edem Kodjo of Togo assumes the post of Secretary General of the OAU.

C.Emergence of the Ntemi system of organization

D.The South-South Commission was formally established

E.The Afrikaner regime signed the Nkomati Accord of NonAggression and good Neighbourhood with Mozambique.

F. Muscat captured by the Oman Sultanate.

G.Formation of A.N.C. party by Nelson Mandela in South Africa.

H.Peter Onu of Nigeria was chosen Secretary General of the OAU.

I.The South Commission was proposed by the NAM summit in Harare — Zimbabwe.

J.Robert Mugabe became Prime Minister of Zimbabwe

K.End of Portuguese rule in East Africa

L.Mombasa established an independent Sheikhdom

M.The national party won and took over complete political power for Afrikaners in South Africa

N.The Portuguese garrison of Kilwa was attacked by the Zimba from Zambezi regions

O.Portuguese were totally evicted from the coast north of Ruvuma River.

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4.Each of the following paragraphs is supposed to have four sentences which form a complete historical meaning. One sentence is missing. Identify the missing sentence and write its letter in the answer sheet.

(a)(i) The prosperity and growth of some East Africa City States depended on the trade from the great Zimbabwe.

(ii)The Swahili and Arab traders in these city states brought gold from Zimbabwe and exported it to Asia with Sofala in Mozambique serving as a transit port.

(iii)The traders thus accumulated a lot of wealth.

(iv) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 

A.The wealth enabled the traders to build modern houses.

B.This wealth made Kilwa-one of the coastal city states-very prosperous between 11th and 15th centuries.

C.The Arabs decided to shift their trading activities from Oman to Sofala.

D.There were some rich African merchants in Mombasa who benefited much from slave trade.

(b) (i) Slave trade in Africa was stimulated by the development of mercantilism in Europe.

(ii)In both West and East Africa the activities of capturing and selling of slaves involved African ruling class, Arab and Swahili merchants.

(iii)However in the 19 th century this obnoxious trade was abolished. 

(iv). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 

A.Both the advanced Christians and Muslims found that slave trade was ungodly.

B.Slavery by this time had increased much to the extent of stopping it.

C.Due to massive shipment of slaves Africa was completely depopulated.

D.The development of industrial capitalism in 19 th century made slave labour not useful.

(c) (i) In both Tanganyika and Kenya there were massive peasant resistances.

(ii) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 

(iii)These mainly were class struggles opposed to colonialism.

(iv)The causes of these strong resistances were crude colonial exploitation and oppression.

A.These were the Maji Maji peasant uprising of 1905 — 1907 and the Mau Mau war of 1952.

B.Mirambo against the German and Abushiri in coastal area.

C.The Yao and Nyamwezi in Tanganyika and the Mau Mau war in Kenya.

D.The Wahehe under Mkwawa and N andi in Kenya.

(d)(i) Colonial economy in East Africa involved three systems of agriculture which were settler, plantation and peasantry.

(ii) Peasantry was dominant in Uganda and some parts in Tanganyika.

(iii) There was a reason for the introduction of peasant agriculture in Uganda.

(iv) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 

A.The colonial government wanted to help the peasants to eradicate poverty.

B.The Buganda were hard workers, so they were allowed to grow cash crops.

C.Uganda is a land locked country and unfit for white settlement.

D.Peasants produced their own subsistence needs as such they produced cash crops more cheaply.

(e)(i) One important contribution made by Seyyid Said in Zanzibar was the introduction and development of clove plantations.

(ii) This made Zanzibar rich and a commercial centre of Sultan Seyyid's commercial empire.

(iii) The clove plantation economy involved land alienation and the use of massive slave labour.

(iv) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 

A.As a result majority of Zanzibaris lost land and were to flee to the mainland.

B.Clove plantation necessitated the expansion of slave trade in East Africa.

C.The introduction of clove plantation accelerated the process of abolishing slave trade.

D.Cloves in Zanzibar made the Yao, Nyamwezi and the Kamba shareholders in the slave trading.

(f) (i) History is a record of human activities.

(ii) These activities enabled man to obtain his needs from nature.

(iii) Man's basic needs include food, clothing and shelter. 

(iv) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 

A. Hence the actions man takes against nature have one major aim

i.e. change natural objects into a condition where they can satisfy human needs.

B. Man found that there was no need to struggle against nature. 

C. Nature was so accommodative and sympathetic to human race. 

D. Development could only be brought if only man preserved nature.

(g) (i) In East Africa forms of state organization varied from place to place.

(ii) In the interlacustrine areas there was the establishment of Kingdoms under the "Mwami" in Rwanda, Burundi and Buha.

(iii) In Kagera region and Ankole the supreme political authority was the "Omukama" who was known as the "Kabaka" in Buganda.

(iv) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 

A.In Zanzibar the state was established by the Portuguese.

B.Throughout much of central Tanzania the village rulers became known as the "Ntemi".

C.In Egypt the rulers were known as "Farouks"

D.The societies in Central Africa called their chief Mwanamutapa.

(h) (i) West African societies came into contact with European merchants during the early phase of the development of capitalism.

(ii)This early phase was known as the phase of primitive accumulation of capital.

(iii)In Europe it has also been known as the age of discovery and overseas expansion.

(iv) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 

A.The motive was to stop slave trade.

B.West African societies benefited a lot from this contact.

C.It was this contact which led to the development ofTrans-Atlantic trade connection.

D.The Red-Indians visited West Africa.

(i)(i) Colonial agriculture was mainly based on the production of cash crops for export.

(ii)The production of food crops was neglected.

(iii) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 

(iv) The main commodities demanded by the colonialists from Africa included coffee, cotton, rubber, sisal, cocoa, tea and tobacco.

A.The production of food crops almost throughout Africa was confined to the traditional subsistence sector.

B.The production of food crops was conducted by the settlers.

C.Plantation owners who never visited their farms bought food for their workers and for peasants in the colonies. 

D. Peasants had to import food from other colonies.

(j)(i) Africa and the Middle East are related both geographically and historically.

(ii) Out of the 22 members of the Arab League, nine are in Africa and are members of AU.

(iii) The regions have had a long history link.

(iv) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 

A. The Arabs and Africans both belong to poor and underdeveloped world with similar economic backgrounds.

B. The Arab States have had commercial, religious, cultural and economic ties with the African continent from ancient times.

C. The Afro-Arab relations deteriorated during the anti-colonial struggles.

D. The Afro-Arab relation was consolidated when the Israel nation was born in 1948.

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5.Account for the rise of state organization in pre-colonial Africa.

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6.What factors gave rise to the Trans-Saharan trade?

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7.When and why did apartheid policies emerge in South Africa?

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8."African resistances against the imposition of colonial rule failed due to Africans' technological backwardness". Discuss.

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9.Outline the similarities and differences between the aims and functioning of the Commonwealth Nations and those of the French Community.

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10.With relevant examples, show the challenges most likely to face the new East African Community.

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