(For Both School and Private Candidates)

Time: 3 Hours Year: 2003



1. Read the following passage carefully then answer the questions that follow by writing the letter of the correct answer in the answer booklet provided.


There are three kinds of education in Africa. There is the old, traditional education, the remains of the colonial schooling, which varied according to how the European power saw African requirements; and there is the post-independence attempt to find an education suitable for the needs of modern Africa.

The old education grew naturally out of the tribal ways of life, and there was much to commend in it. A child had to learn how to deal with the dangers of his surroundings and how to treat his fellows.

He knew about weather lore and the skills of a spear, axe and hoe from old men. His mother taught him correct speech, behaviour end respect for his elders. Throughout his childhood, it was impressed on him that he could not live alone; he must "conform" and accept the ways of the tribe. He lived in a world of kinship: his kin gave him security in sickness and old age. Law and ownership of land, too, were based on kinship. So the child learned the rites which kinship would demand throughout his life from birth to maturity, marriage and death.

Much of this education was informal. The home was the child's school, where he learned traditional legends and proverbs. (For example, the reader might like to A,vork out the meaning of these two Baluyia proverbs from Kenya: "A person running alone thinks he is the fastest runner" and "A small bird cannot advise a bigger one"). This social education had a great emphasis on correct conduct and confidence. A traveller in East Africa in the 1930's wrote: "I have seen three children between four years and six quite competently preparing a meal with no supervision". But severe tests of endurance were a more formal part of this education. Chagga boys in the old days had to sleep in holes in the ground at night for nine months, often in the cold mountain air. A boy was required to go on a lonely expedition into the forest to kill a leopard with a bow and arrow. Bena girls, aged nine to 13, were ducked repeatedlyin streams, or terrified by women pretending to fall dead at their feet and by the appearance of monsters.

This traditional form of education had the advantage of preparing a child for life in the community; it did not in general encourage him to be ambitious or independent or teach him to meet the needs of the modern world. So in the colonial years missions and "European" schools taught the kind of things children in Europe were taught. This produced a small westernized élite in some colonies, but it was severely criticized for having little to do with African needs. Reading books had European birds and snow scenes in them; arithmetic problems dealt with taps, and wallpaper rolls. Few of these things had something to do with many African children's environment.

Colonial education too has been criticized because it was, to quote President Nyerere of Tanzania, "motivated by a desire to inculcate the values of the colonial society and to train individuals for the service of the colonial state". The state interest in education was based on the need for local clerks and junior officials, and there was thus a heavy emphasis on subservient attitudes and white-collar skills.

In the post-independence era, African needs are being rethought.

Questions are being asked such as: "How many universities should a country have, whilst half of an age group gets no schooling at all?" Some highly trained electrical engineers are needed for the power stations; but Africa also needs men skilled in the relatively simple skills ofwooden bridge construction, laying laterite roads, and building single-storey houses. Civil servants especially need a good Secondary education if they are to deal with matters ranging from money for a new agricultural scheme to collecting information for government approval of harbour extension. For this, says one writer, "a developing continent must clearly learn to be practical".

In Africa parents have become convinced that education is the key to a good job and family prestige too. But it has its drawbacks. In many countries Secondary and College education means that children have to leave the rural areas for the towns and later, as men they are not returning to work on the farms and produce food. The opportunities and leisure attractions of the towns are too tempting.


(i) We can tell from this passage that traditional education taught young people:

  1. how to act independently. 
  2. how to use a hoe, spear and axe.
  3. how to live in the community.
  4. how to speak properly and respect their elders.
  5. how to write correctly.
Choose Answer :

(ii) The sentence: much of his education was informal refers to:

  1. the education offered in schools today.
  2. colonial education.
  3. education suitable for the needs of modern Africa.
  4. traditional education.
  5. education given to boys only.
Choose Answer :

(iii)The traveller in East Africa was surprised because:

  1. such young people could prepare a meal themselves.
  2. the thought only European children could prepare a meal.
  3. the children were not competently supervised.
  4. it required so many children to prepare a meal. 
  5. the children were just playing.
Choose Answer :

(iv)The first colonial schools:

  1. taught the African student to meet the needs of the modern world.
  2. had the advantage that they prepared a child for life in his own community.
  3. served the needs of the colonial power rather than those of African society.
  4. were motivated by a desire to inculcate values.
  5. taught nothing to African students.
Choose Answer :

(v) Élite probably means: 

  1. a group of colonialists.
  2. impact.
  3. a group of selected people.
  4. electrical system.
  5. manual work.
Choose Answer :

(vi) Education in the colonial years is criticized because:

  1. the reading books had European birds. 
  2. it dealt with taps and wallpaper rolls. 
  3. it was offered in English.
  4. it was not relevant.
  5. it was given to leaders.
Choose Answer :

(vii)According to the writer, education in Africa today:

  1. needs to be very practical.
  2. should be open to all, not just an élite.
  3. needs to be re-thought.
  4. does not require universities.
  5. does not need more technology.
Choose Answer :

(viii)The pronoun they in the last but one paragraph refers to:

  1. questions.
  2. civil servants.
  3. universities.
  4. highly trained electrical engineers. 
  5. colonialist.
Choose Answer :

(ix)From the last paragraph we can deduce that in many African countries, education is:

  1. preparing young people for urban life.
  2. preparing young people for rural life.
  3. attracting young people to urban areas when they are reluctant to leave.
  4. trying to prepare young people for rural life, but the urban areas are too attractive.
  5. less important for Africans.
Choose Answer :

(x)The sentence: He knew about the weather loremeans: 

  1. he knows about weather knowledge. 
  2. he knows about weather stores.
  3. he knows about weather law. 
  4. he knows about weather forecast.
  5. he knows that the rain will or will not fall.
Choose Answer :

2.Read and summarize the following passage. Use about 40 words.

A teacher's day starts the previous evening when the lessons for that day were prepared. Most junior and senior high school teachers teach four or five classes each day. At least two, and sometimes three lessons must be planned for those classes. Planning and organizing the lessons and grading papers usually take two or more hours of teacher's time. Usually there is an hour per day spent on supervising students working in the hall, the schoolyard, or the lunch room. Some teaches supervise extra-curricular activities such as the school newspaper, a class play, or a team sport. This may take one to three extra hours of their time everyday. So, a teacher may spend from eight to eleven or more hours on a day's work. Weekly teachers' meetings and conferences with students and parents add even more time to the teacher's schedule.

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3.Match the items in column A and B to produce complete meaningful sentences and write the letter of the corresponding item in Column B against the item number in Column A in your answer booklet.


(i)The customs office ... ...

(ii)The tin deposits in that area . . . . . . .

(iii)......... gave him a thorough examination.

(iv)The absence of light has ......... 

(iv) I'm sure she regrets ............


  1. hurt one of his patients
  2. provides them with a reasonable income
  3. will need a dustbin
  4. the doctor
  5. what she said 
  6. demanded for our passports
  7. a little farther along the road
  8. luggage in the back of the car 
  9. would probably be exhausted in the near future
  10. a considerable effect on plants and animals
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4.Rearrange the following five sentences into a logical sequence to make a meaningful paragraph by writing the corresponding letters in your answer booklet.

(a) Luckily it belonged to a family consisting of an old bull and 14 other elephants.

(b) Not long ago tourists at Manyara watched a baby elephant rescued from death.

(c) The baby elephant had sunk so deeply into this mud that only the tip of its trunk was showing.

(d) About 200 elephants had gathered round a huge lake of mud. 

(e) It was almost unable to breathe.

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5. Choose two (2) of the four (4) given topics and write a composition of not more than 250 words each.

(a) Write a letter to your friend telling him the steps you are taking to ensure that you do not get AIDS. Your name is Kazamoyo Majaliwa of Mteteeni Secondary School, Box 205, Lindi.

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(b) You are a head girl/boy of a school who has just completed Form Four. Write a speech to be read to your fellow students at the graduation ceremony advising them on what they should do to achieve good results in their final year.

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(c)"If you educate a woman you have educated the whole nation". How true is this statement?

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(d) Discuss the importance of environmental preservation.

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6.Choose the letter of the correct answer and write its letter beside the item number in the answer sheet provided.

(i) The train .......... an hour ago but it has not done so as yet.

  1. left
  2. should have left
  3. may have left
  4. would have left
  5. has left
Choose Answer :

(ii)Would you mind ......... the car for me?

  1. to park
  2. park
  3. parking
  4. about parking
  5. from parking
Choose Answer :

(iii)When I opened the front door I . . . . . . a letter inside.

  1. find
  2. found
  3. had found
  4. was finding
  5. have found
Choose Answer :

(iv) By this time next year I completed Form Four examinations.

  1. will be 
  2. will
  3. will have
  4. have
  5. shall have
Choose Answer :

7. Choose the grammatically well spelled word and write its letter beside the item number in the answer booklet provided.

(i) Their plans were  . . . . . .by the damage done to a bridge by a storm the night before.

  1. affected 
  2. effected 

(ii) All . . . . . . Mariam went swimming.

  1. accept 
  2. except

(iii) Please ......... us on the best way to make a fortune

  1. advice
  2. advise him

(iv) I . . . . . . last week.

  1. sow
  2. saw
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8. Choose a word or words which complete(s) correctly the sentences in items (i) — (iv) and write its letter beside the item number.

Alex kept wondering at (i) ......... makes people yawn just after waking up. He longed to know from a person (ii) . . . . . . . could tell him. While he was studying in the library, came a man (iii) ......... he had not met before. This man gave him a booklet (iv) ......... had details about yawning. That booklet was written by a medical doctor.

A. who B. when C. what D. which E. why that G. whom

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9. Choose a word or words which completes/complete correctly the sentence items below and write its letter beside the item number.

(i) I want you to blow this whistle ......... half past four precisely:

(ii) We'll have to work ......... nightfall to finish this job.

(iii) ......... a number of years the firm's profits have been excellent. 

(iv) . . . . . . posting that letter, remember to put a stamp on it.

A. until B. for C. till D. before E. after at

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10. Rewrite each of the following sentences according to the instructions given to each one. Make any necessary changes but do not change the general meaning of the sentence.

(a) I haven't written to you for a long time.

(Begin: It is a long time . . . . .)

(b) Old Mr. Nguvumali likes to look at the children playing. 

(Begin: Old Mr. Nguvumali enjoys .........).

(c)It was impossible to work under those conditions.

(Begin: Working .........)

(d)Sudan is very good at football.

(Begin: Sudan plays ....... )

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1.Madam, this is Annie - Diane Case (1986) - Macmillan

2. A Wreath for Father Mayer of Masasi - Ndunguru S. N. (1997)

3. Encounters from Africa - Macmillan Education Limited (2002)

Plus any three (3) of the following:

1.Is it Possible? - Kulet H. R. Ole (1975) - Longman

2.The Great Ponds - Amadi E. (1976) - Heinemann

3.Pan African Short Stories - Neville Denny (ed) (1965) (PASS) Thomas Nelson and Sons Ltd.

4.Things Fall Apart - Chinua Achebe (1962) - Heinemann

5.Mine Boy - P. Abrahams (1963) - Heinemann

6.No Bride Price - R. David (1967) - EAPH

7.House Boy- OyonoF. (1966)


1. Betrayal in the city - by Francis Imbuga (1990) - Heinemann Kenya

2. Lwanda Magere - by Okot Omatatah (1991)-Heinemann Kenya

3.Three Suitors One Husband - Mbia Oyono (1974) - Eyre Methuen

4.The Lion and the Jewel - Soyinka O. (1963) COUP)

5.This Time Tomorrow - Ngugi wa Thiong'o (1972) Heinemann)

6.The Black Hermit - Ngungi wa Thing'o (1968) Heinemann)


1. Song of Lawino or Ocol - by Okot p'. Bitek (1974) (EAPH)

2.Plus five (5) Poems from either:

  • Growing up with Poetry - David Rubadiri (ed) (Heinemann)
  • Poems from East Africa - David Cook (1971) (EAPH)


  • Summons - by Mabala (TPH) (1960)


  • Drum Beat- Okola Bennard (1967) - (EAPH)

11. It is said that characters were driven by the need for a better life to protect them against the forces of injustice that surrounded them. Use TWO (2) characters from the texts you have read u) justify the statement.

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12. "When the conflicts become very strong in society they often cause destruction to individual characters either physically or mentally. But some characters are strong enough to fight back."

Discuss this statement with reference to TWO (2) readings you have done.

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14. Ifyou were given a chance to suggest some of the traditional customs which should not be adapted in Tanzania today, which ones would you strongly suggest? Refer to TWO (2) readings you have done.

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