3. Read carefully the following passage and then answer the questions that follow.
There might have been some justification for the steady increase from year to year in external aid if there was evidence that the battle against poverty was being won. All the evidence however, clearly demonstrates that the poor are getting poorer.
The reason why there is little effect on poverty reduction is that most aid is spent on heavily capitalized infrastructure projects such as railways, bridges and roads. These may have some indirect effect on the lives of poor people, but what people really want is better health and education services, improvement in village roads rather than highways and access to proper credit facilities to help them improve agriculture and raise their income.
Although there are some enlightened donors, most big western governments and UN agencies find these types of projects too small-scale and difficult to measure and administer. They would rather give money for power stations and fertilizer plants, since such things can be seen and their performance can be measured.
They also look impressive in glossy magazines telling the tax payers back home, how the government is spending their money.
(a) Suggest a suitable title for this passage.
(b) Why does the author say that the external aid has little effect on poverty?
(c) In what ways could external aid have direct effect to the people?
(d) Why do some donors give money only for large scale projects?
(e) From the passage, why does external aid seem to have no justification?