Time: 2:30 Hours Year: 2023


  1. This paper consists of sections A, B and C with a total of ten (10) questions.
  2. Answer all questions in the spaces provided.
  3. Section A carries fifteen (15) marks, section B carries seventy (70) marks, and section C carries fifteen (15) marks.
  4. All writing must be in blue or black ink.
  5. Cellular phones, calculators and any unauthorised materials are not allowed in the assessment room.
  6. Write your Assessment Number at the top right corner of every page.

















SECTION A (15 Marks)

Answer all questions in this section.

l . For each of the items (i) - (x), choose the correct answer from the given alternatives and write its letter in the box provided.

(i) How best can History be defined?

  1. The study of the past human social, economic and political events.
  2. The study of all past human events that have common impact.
  3. The study of the present social, economic and political events.
  4. The study of all present human social, economic and political events.
Choose Answer :

(ii) Through which of the following can the complex process of the origin of man be clearly described?

  1. Carbon 14 
  2. Archaeological findings
  3. Historical sites 
  4. Evolution theory
Choose Answer :

(iii) What was the composition of the tools made during the Late Stone Age?

  1. Flakes, choppers and picks
  2. Picks, choppers and hand axes
  3. Hand axes, cleavers and picks
  4. Spears, barbed arrows and blades
Choose Answer :

(iv) Which one was the most used local method by the East African people to conserve soil during the pre-colonial period?

  1. Intercropping 
  2. Shifting cultivation
  3. Permanent agriculture 
  4. Crop rotation
Choose Answer :

(v) What is the name given to the earliest system which permitted people to live together and practice collective ownership of major means of production? 

  1. Capitalism 
  2. Communalism
  3. Feudalism 
  4. Socialism
Choose Answer :

(vi) Which factor best explains the decline of the Zulu Kingdom in South Africa?

  1. The outbreak of Mfecane in the 1830s
  2. The arrival of the Portuguese at the Cape in
  3. The Boers invasion in the 1830s
  4. The Anglo-Boer war of the 1890s
Choose Answer :

(vii)Why did the Omani Arabs frequently attack the Portuguese in East Africa during the 17th century?

  1. They wanted to stop Portuguese slave-trading activities.
  2. They wanted to sign the treaties for abolishing slave trade.
  3. They disliked the Portuguese who were the agents of colonialism. 
  4. They wanted to rule the East African coast.
Choose Answer :

(viii) Which one was an important factor for social interaction among African societies in Central and East Africa during the pre-colonial period?

  1. Trans-Saharan trade
  2. Arrival of the agents of colonialism
  3. Agriculture
  4. Ngoni migration
Choose Answer :

(ix) Which one was an economic impact brought by Portuguese rule in East Africa?

  1. Underdevelopment of Africa
  2. Growth of Swahili language
  3. Occurrence of wars
  4. Destruction of culture
Choose Answer :

(x) Which statement is true about the tactics used to abolish slave trade in the world?

  1. Anti-slave trade patrol ships were used in the 15th century.
  2. Treaties to stop slave trade were signed in the 7th century.
  3. Campaigns and meetings were held by Abolitionists.
  4. Magazines were used by Slave traders to condemn slavery and slave trade.
Choose Answer :

2. Match the historical explanations in List A with the correct historical terms in List B by writing the letter of the correct response below the corresponding item number in the table provided.

List A

List B

  1. A drawing along which the dates and events are shown in the order that they followed in history.
  2. Audio-visual sources which capture information using sound and pictures.
  3. A drawing which shows the relationship between blood related members over a period of time.
  4. A table which shows the historical dates and events in the order they followed in history.
  5. A drawin that shows how dates and events are related.
  1. Time chart
  2. Timeline 
  3. Family tree
  4. Time graph
  5. Anthropology
  6. Linguistics 
  7. Archaeology
  8. Films


List A






List B

View Ans

SECTION B (70 Marks) 

Answer all questions in this section.

3. Briefly, explain the following terms: 

(i) Ubugabire

(ii) Nyarubanja

(iii) Captive

(iv) Umwinyi

(v) Kabaka

View Ans

4. Arrange the following sentences in a chronological order by writing their roman numbers below the corresponding item position in the table provided.

(i) Homo-erectus was a more advanced stage in the evolution of man whereby man was full-fledged and as he moved upright he discovered fire.

(ii) With time, man transformed to Australopithecus stage. This was the stage where man's first bipedal ancestor emerged.

(iii) Iron was the technical innovation which revolutionized human life as man improved the ability to produce enough food.

(iv) Man belongs to the family of primates which include Gorilla, Ape, Monkey and Chimpanzee which walked with four limbs more than thirty million years ago.

(v) At the stage of Homo habilis, man was called skilful man because he was the systematic tool maker.



View Ans

5. Briefly, answer each of the following questions: 

(i) Why did the Ngoni warriors use the short stabbing spears instead of long throwing spears?

View Ans

(ii) Why did the Ngoni migrate from the Natal region of South Africa to the North and not to the other directions?

View Ans

(iii) Explain two factors which made people to become slaves in pre-colonial Africa.

View Ans

(iv) How did music and dance make pre-colonial African societies interact socially?

View Ans

(v)What was the role of the Golden Stool in the Asante State of West Africa during the pre-colonial period?

View Ans

6. Differentiate the following:

(i) King Henry the Navigator and Jan Van Riebeck

(ii) Fort Jesus and Boer Trek

(iii) Kaffir wars and Mfecane wars

(iv) The San and the Khoikhoi

(v) Moresby treaty and Frere treaty

View Ans

7. Compare five common features which existed under slavery and feudalism.

View Ans

8. Describe five weaknesses of the archives in obtaining historical information.

View Ans

9. Study the following sketch map and answer the questions that follow:

(i) What is the name of the company which operated in a place marked by letter A during the pre-colonial period.

(ii) In which European nation did the company in (i) come from?

(iii) Which European company operated in an area marked letter C before the colonial period'

(iv) Who was the founder of the trading company in a place marked by letter B?

(v) Which European nation financed her company to explore her areas of interest at letter B during the 1880s?

View Ans

SECTION C (15 Marks)

Answer question ten (10).

10. Why are the "economic factors" regarded as the major reasons for the abolition of slave trade in Africa? Explain by giving five points.

View Ans

Download Learning
Hub App

For Call,Sms&WhatsApp: 255769929722 / 255754805256