Time: 2:30 Hours        Year: 2022


  1. This paper consists of sections A, B and C with a total of ten (10) questions
  2. Answer all questions
  3. Section A and C carry fifteen (15) marks each and Section B carries seventy (70) marks
  4. All writing must be in blue or black in
  5. All answer must be written in the spaces provided
  6. Cellular phones, calculators and any unauthorized materials are not allowed in the assessment room
  7. Write your Assessment Number at the top right corner of every page.

SECTION A (15 Marks)

Answer all questions.

1. For each of the items (i) – (x), choose the correct answer from the given alternatives and write its letter in the box provided.

(i) The archeologists study past human activities though material remains, what do the anthropologists study?

  1. The records of people who interacted with outsiders
  2. The languages and their changes over longer time
  3. The cultural practices and patterns of human society
  4. The traditions and physical development of man
Choose Answer :

(ii) An evolution of man has passed through several stages involving the change in the structural features and way of life. Which ways of life are associated with Homo sapiens?

  1. Hunting and eating raw food
  2. Gathering and walking on fore limbs
  3. Walking on fore limbs and domesticating animals
  4. Domesticating plants and animals
Choose Answer :

(iii) Which period in the history of human beings is marked by the appearance of both Zinjathropus and Homo Habilis?

  1. New Stone Age
  2. Early Stone Age
  3. Middle Stone Age
  4. Late Stone Age
Choose Answer :

(iv) Two students from Mtwara region organized a study tour to Kilimanjaro Region where they saw beans, maize and few trees planted in the same farm. Which term befits such a type of agricultural system?

  1. Intercropping
  2. Mixed farming
  3. Agroforestry
  4. Crop rotation
Choose Answer :

(v) Identify the collective name given to the massive labour force used in the construction of cities, pyramids, dams and irrigation schemes in ancient Egypt.

  1. Wage labour
  2. Serfs
  3. Peasants
  4. Slaves
Choose Answer :

(vi) Which set consists of components of social interaction?

  1. Marriage, religion, medicine and migration
  2. Music, migration, trade and metal working
  3. Agriculture, religion, war and marriage
  4. Fishing, medicine, dance and migration
Choose Answer :

(vii) The History teacher asked Aisha to list to list down five commodities which were brought by the Portuguese in East Africa. Which correct list of commodities was Aisha supposed to give?

  1. Slaves, beeswax, gum, animal skins and cooper
  2. Maize, cassava, sweet potatoes and pineapples
  3. Cassava, cotton, sisal, clothes and glass 
  4. Guns, gun powder, glass, ammunition and cloth 
Choose Answer :

(viii) The following are the reasons for the Portuguese’s attention to East African Coast from the 15th to 17th century except

  1. Conquering and controlling the area
  2. Preventing the expansion of the Boers
  3. Controlling gold trade
  4. Obtaining full control of the Indian Ocean
Choose Answer :

(ix) Which of the following alternatives comprise religious activities in pre-colonial Africa?

  1. Prayers to bless warriors
  2. Purification rituals
  3. Ordaining priests
  4. Burial rites
  1. (i), (iii) and (iv)
  2. (iii), (i) and (iv)
  3. (iv), (ii) and (iii)
  4. (iv), (ii) and (i)
Choose Answer :

(x) European countries were using local raw materials produced in Europe before the 19th century. Why did the European countries demand raw materials from Africa during the 19th century?

  1. The European raw materials were insufficient
  2. The European raw materials had low quality
  3. The Africans did not need their raw materials
  4. The European countries wanted to develop Africa
Choose Answer :

2. Match the historical descriptions in List A with the corresponding historical terms in List B by writing the letter of the correct response below the item number in the table provided.



(i) A person who sponsored Portugal’s exploration voyages.

(ii) A person who explored the whole west coast of South Africa and reached at the Cape in 1487

(iii) A Portuguese sailor who successfully reached India after going round the Cape of South Africa in 1498

(iv) A person who shifted his capital from Oman to Zanzibar in 1840

(v) A Turkish person who led the troops that resisted against the Portuguese

  1. Ali Bey
  2. Seyyid Said
  3. Henry Stanley
  4. Vasco Da Gama
  5. Prince Henry
  6. Barthlomew Diaz
  7. Van Riebeeck
  8. David Livingstone
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3. Briefly explain the following terms:

  1. Hadzabe
  2. Landlord
  3. Mwinyi mkuu
  4. Production
  5. Omukama
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4. Arrange the following sentences in a chronological order by writing their roman numbers below the corresponding position in the table provided.

  1. At the stage of Homo sapiens, man began crop cultivation and animal husbandry to supplement hunting and gathering.
  2. Darwin’s theory suggests that man’s species have been evolving gradually from lower stage to higher stage
  3. The origin of man has been a controversial issue among the historians especially when and how man came into existence.
  4. The evolution theory suggest that members of Australopithecus family which lived during the early Stone Age Could make tools.
  5. The discovery of during the middle stone age enable Homo erectus to eat roasted food.
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5. Briefly, answer each of the following questions:

  1. Why did the people in central Tanganyika practice shifting cultivation during the pre-colonial period?
  2. According to Charles Darwin, adaptations enable an organism to survive and reproduce. What is likely to happen if an animal lacks such adaptations?
  3. Why did the early human beings adopt a communal way of life? (Give two reasons)
  4. The Ngoni succeeded in defeating other communities because of using the “cow horn” technique. How was this techniques applied?
  5. How did the geographical location favour the rise and growth of Ghana Kingdom?
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6. Differentiate the following

  1. Primates and Zinjathropus
  2. History and oral tradition
  3. Intercropping and crop rotation
  4. Trans-Saharan trade and Trans-Atlantic slave trade
  5. Age set organization and centralized states.
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7. Study carefully the following sketch map and then answer the questions that follow.

  1. Why the pastoral society represented by letter A declared war on the Dutch farmers in the 17th century?
  2. What is the name of pastoral society labeled by letter B?
  3. Who made a living out of their control of trade routes across the Sahara desert by providing guides to the traders in West Africa during the pre-colonial period in the area indicated by letter D?
  4. Name the famous pastoral society labeled by letter E.
  5. Name the political system of the pastoral society labeled by letter C
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8. Briefly, describe five reasons for the Ngoni migration towards Central and East Africa

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9. Briefly, explain five motives of the Dutch settlement at the cape of South Africa during the 17th century.

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SECTION C (15 Marks)

Answer question ten (10)

10. “Missionaries prepared Africa for colonization” Justify this statement by using five points.

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