Time: 2:30 Hours Year 2021


l . This paper consists of sections A, B and C with a total of ten (10) questions.

2. Answer all questions in sections A and B and two (2) questions from section C.

3. Section A carries forty (40) marks and section B and C carry thirty (30) marks each.

4. All writing must be in blue or black ink.

5. All answers must be written in the spaces provided.

6. Cellular phones and any unauthorised materials are not allowed in the assessment room.

7. Write your Assessment Number at the top right comer of every page.

















SECTION A (40 Marks)

Answer all questions in this section.

For each of the items (i) - (x), choose the correct answer from among the given alternatives and write its letter in the box provided.

(i) What did the golden stool which was possessed by the Asante Empire in West Africa symbolize?

  1. Unity of the state
  2. Myth of the state
  3. Decline of the state 
  4. Wealth of the state
Choose Answer :

(ii) The country that dominated the industrial production in the world before the 19th century was

  1. Netherlands.
  2. China.
  3. Britain. 
  4. Germany.
Choose Answer :

(iii) What were the important salt making centres in pre-colonial Africa?

  1. Taghaza and Uvinza.
  2. Axum and Meroe.
  3. Engaruka and Uvinza. 
  4. Nok and Taghaza.
Choose Answer :

(iv) Who were the earliest inhabitants in South Africa?

  1. Ndebele and Zulu. 
  2. Ngoni and Bantu.
  3. San and Khoikhoi. 
  4. Cushites and San.
Choose Answer :

(v) Who was a systematic tool maker during the evolution of man?

  1. HomoHabilis 
  2. Zinjanthropus
  3. Homo Sapiens 
  4. Homo Erectus
Choose Answer :

(vi) Which of the following African societies developed Ntemiship system in East Africa by the 15th century?

  1. Nyamwezi and Dorobo
  2. Nyamwezi and Sandawe
  3. Nyamwezi and Chagga
  4. Nyamwezi and Sukuma
Choose Answer :

(vii) Which of the following is not true about Homo erectus?

  1. Had a larger brain than HomoHabilis
  2. Walked upright
  3. Only existed in East Africa
  4. Had developed some of speech
Choose Answer :

(viii)What was the main reason for the rise of Mfecane war in South Africa?

  1. The struggle to control gold mines.
  2. The invasion of the Boers.
  3. The struggle to control land.
  4. The pressure of apartheid policy.
Choose Answer :

(ix) Which of the following statement is not true about the Middle Stone Age?

  1. Sharper, smaller and portable tools developed.
  2. Stone picks and stone needles were introduced.
  3. Fire was discovered at this period.
  4. Pebbles tools for cutting were introduced.
Choose Answer :

(x) Which method was used to obtain salt during the pre-colonial era?

  1. Evaporating water from the sea.
  2. Mining and evaporating reeds.
  3. Mining salt from iron bearing rocks. 
  4. Boiling and evaporating bowls.
Choose Answer :

2. Match the historical statement in List A with the correct names in List B by writing the letter of the correct response below the corresponding item number in the table provided.

List A

List B

  1. A person who led the Dutch to begin settlement at the South African cape in 1652.
  2. A Portuguese sailor who successfully reached India in 1498.
  3. A Turkish troop-leader who assisted the feudal lords in resisting the Portuguese rule in East Africa. A trader who used the wealth which he accumulated from the caravan trade to establish a kingdom in Southern Eastern Zaire.
  4. A German Missionary pioneer in East Africa.
  5. The Ngoni group which settled in the present day Songea district.
  6. A person who believed that slave trade and slavery were inhuman acts.
  7. A Portuguese who sailed around the southern tip of Africa in the 1487.
  8. The ritual leaders among the Maasai society.
  9. A leader who expanded his territory in central Tanganyika through slave trade.
  1. Bartholomew Diaz
  2. Gwangwara 
  3. Johann Krapf
  4. Tuta
  5. Mirambo
  6. Mzilikazi
  7. Ali Mazrui
  8. Jan Van Riebeeck
  9. Ali Bey
  10. Laibons
  11. Vasco da Gama
  12. Van der Stel
  13. Msiri
  14. William Wilberforce


List A











List B

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3. Write TRUE if the statement is correct or FALSE if the statement is not correct in the space provided.

(i) Accumulation of precious metals like silver and gold was called expansionism.... . . . .

(ii) One among the advantages of oral traditions is that they are easy to keep and remember

(iii) The Zanzibar slave market was closed by the Hamerton Treaty of 1945

(iv) The advanced tools which Homo erectus produced included the "hand axe"

(v) Some of the patrilineal communities in Tanzania include Yao, Sukuma, Mwera and Pare

(vi) The Laibons were senior elders with special respects among the Nyamwezi

(vii) Bi-pedalism refers to the evolutionary change from Zinjanthropus to primates

(viii) Jaja of Opobo was an ex-slave who rose to build a wealthy Kingdom in West Africa

(ix) Slaves from West Africa were transported across the Pacific Ocean to the New World (America)

(x) Niami was the capital of Mali Empire

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4. Briefly explain the following terms:

(i) Archives

(ii) Homo Sapiens


(iv)Fort Jesus

(v) Jihad

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SECTION B (30 Marks)

Answer all questions in this section.

5. Arrange the following sentences in a chronological order by writing their roman numbers in the table provided.

(i) The history of South Africa has been marked with terrains of changes characterized by wars, chaos and migration since the establishment of the Dutch Settlement.

(ii) In the 18th century when the Dutch fought with the Xhosa, Khoikhoi and the San who in greater number migrated to the desert near Drakensberg Mountain.

(iii) From about the 1810s, the Mfecane transformed the political map of Southern Africa, causing massive migrations such as the Ngoni migration to East Africa.

(iv) The Boer trek further caused more wars and conflicts in the interior with the Ndebele; Zulu and Sotho that resulted into futther migration of Ndebele to Zimbabwe.

(v) No sooner, several thousand Boers' families and their servants trekked to southern Highveld away from the British Cape colony.







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6. Complete each of the following statements with the correct historical facts.

(i) The way which was widely practiced in river beds to obtain gold is called

(ii) The basic and simplest unit of social organization in the early agricultural societies was.... . . . . . . . .

(iii) The feudal relations that existed along the East African coast were known as

(iv) The treaty which confined slave trade within East Africa is called

(v) In which year did the Portuguese witness the fall of Fort Jesus

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7. Study this drawing and answer the questions which follow.

(i) Which trade in West Africa expanded in the 9th century due to the introduction of the means of transport shown in the drawing?

(ii) Why the type of animals shown on the drawing was preferred by the traders as means of transport across the desert

(iii) Which trade led to the decline of the type of the trade that used the animals shown in the drawing?

(iv) Name the earliest kingdom in the Western Sudanic zone which expanded due to the trade named in (i) above

(v) Through which desert was the long distance trade linking West Africa and North Africa using the animals shown on the drawing conducted?

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SECTION C (30 Marks);

Answer two (2) questions from this section.

8. What changes did iron working bring to the pre-colonial African sociftics?

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9. Explain six limitations of using oral traditions as a source of historical information.

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10. Explain six effects of Portuguese rule on the East African societies.

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