1. This paper consists of sections A, B and C.

2. Answer ALL questions in sections A and B and only TWO in section C.

3. Write your examination number at the top right corner of every page.

4. ALL writing must be in black or blue ink.

5. ALL answers must be written in the spaces provided. 6. Cellphones are not allowed in the examination room.














1. For each of the items (i) - (x) choose the correct answer from among the given alternatives and write its letter beside the item number.

(i) The interlacustrine region is a good example of an area which practiced:

  1. mixed agriculture
  2. pastoralism
  3. permanent agriculture 
  4. shifting agriculture
Choose Answer :

(ii) The following are exploitative social and economic organizations practiced in Pre-colonial Africa except:

  1. Capitalism 
  2. Communalism
  3. Feudalism
  4. Slavery
Choose Answer :

(iii) One of the impacts of iron technology in Africa was:

  1. expansion of heavy industries
  2. famine
  3. growth of agriculture 
  4. increase of diseases
Choose Answer :

(iv) Audaghost was a trading town in the . . . . . . route of Trans-Saharan trade:

  1. central
  2. eastern
  3. southern
  4. western
Choose Answer :

(v) Olduvai Gorge is famous for:

  1. archaeological findings
  2. archival activities
  3. oral traditions
  4. sedentary farming
Choose Answer :

(vi) Before the 15thC Africa was called a "Dark continent" because:

  1. it had no development
  2. it was not known to European capitalists
  3. its people were black
  4. there were no demands for raw materials
Choose Answer :

(vii) The origin of the Ngoni speaking people is historically believed to be in:

  1. Kimberley in South Africa
  2. Natal in South Africa
  3. Pretoria in South Africa 
  4. Soweto in South Africa
Choose Answer :

(viii)The following were some of the centralized city states of West Africa:

  1. Bunyoro, Buganda and Toro
  2. Cape, Nyamwezi and Karagwe
  3. Oyo, Ife and Benin
  4. Sofala, Mombasa and Lamu
Choose Answer :

(ix) Food production and animal keeping spread in Africa by means of:

  1. internal evolution, migration and contact
  2. migration, trade and contact with early growers
  3. technology and advice by kings and chiefs 
  4. war, trade and imitation
Choose Answer :

(x) A man who was the first to design and use tools was:

  1. Australopithecus afrikanus
  2. Gorilla
  3. Homo erectus
  4. Modern apes
Choose Answer :

2. (a) Match the items in List A with those in List B by writing the correct letter against the corresponding question number.


(i) A characteristic of slave mode of production

(ii) Examples of historical sites

(iii) Feudal mode of production which developed in Karagwe and Buhaya

(iv) It was built by the Portuguese

(v) Major traders in Central Africa (vi) Matrilineal societies in East Africa

(vii) Pastoral societies in East Africa

(viii)The great Zulu warrior who established Zulu Empire

(ix) The source of private and public documents

(x) Trading acting activities between Africa, America and Europe

  1. Archaeology
  2. Archives
  3. Bagamoyo, Kilwa and Isimila
  4. Barter system
  5. Fort Jesus in Kenya
  6. Hamerton treaty
  7. Imbagala and Ovimbundu
  8. Iron age
  9. Makonde and Mwera
  10. Masai, Karamajong and Pokot
  11. Nyarubanja
  12. Private ownership of production
  13. Ruga ruga army
  14. Shaka
  15. Trans-Atlantic slave trade

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(b) Re-arrange the following sentences in a chronological order by writing their roman numbers in the table provided.

(i) An anthropologist is interested in such material aspects of life as farming, cattle raising, fishing and technology.

(ii) It concerns itself with present day social organizations in relation to customs, cultural values, and institution forms of government system of marriage, inheritance descent and religious practices.

(iii)Anthropology is the study of people' origins, development, customs and beliefs

(iv)Historians need to understand how societies function today and what their key concepts are and how they functioned in the past.

(v) Anthropologists' description and explanation of beliefs and customs help to visualize what the culture being described looked like in the past.

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3. (a) Years and important historical events that took place in Africa are shown in the Table below. Write the letter of the year against the corresponding event in the Table provided.


(i) Abolition of slavery by the British at the Cape

(ii) Dr. Leakey discovered the skull of the earliest man at Olduvai Gorge

(iii) The British captured the Cape of South Africa 

(iv) The first anti-slave trade agreement in East Africa 

(v) The rise of King Shaka into power.

  1. 1652 
  2. 1793 
  3. 1795 
  4. 1816 
  5. 1822  
  6. 1834
  7. 1873
  8. 1959

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(b) Write the missing historical facts:

(i) . . . . . . . . . was the name given to the people who mostly dealt with iron working industries in Africa.

(ii) The Dutch settlers were also known as . . . . . . . .

(iii) . . . . . . . . was a famous slave trader in Manyema.

(iv) The dominant form of social organization in pastoral societies was . . . . . . . . .

(v) The kingdom of Ethiopia was ruled by . . . . . . . . . . when she was attacked by the Italians.

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4. Write T for a TRUE (correct) statement and F for a FALSE (incorrect) statement.

(i) Mixed farming implies keeping animals and crop cultivation. . . . . . . . .

(ii) Apportioning land and settling disputes were among the duties of the clan head. . . . . . . . .

(iii) Periplus of the Erythrean Sea means the discoveries made by Arab traders. . . . . . . . . .

(iv) Meroe was the centre of trade in East Africa. . . . . . . . . . .

(v) Chewa and Bisa were good examples of the participants of the long distance trade in Central Africa. . . . . . . . . . 

(vi) In 1884 Carl Peters formed another company known as Imperial British East Africa Company (I.B.E.A.C). . . . . . . . . . .

(vii) Oman rule marked the beginning of Portuguese rule in East Africa. . . . . . . . .

(viii)The industrial revolution caused the abolition of slave trade. . . . . . . . . .

(ix) Nok, Meroe and Axum were the major iron smelting centres in ancient Africa. .

(x) A century is a period of one hundred years. . . . . . . . . . . .

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5. Write a short essay about the Triangular Slave Trade. In your essay, use the following guidelines:

  • Meaning
  • Participants
  • When it was conducted
  • Commodities which were exchanged
  • Social, economic and political effects
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6. Give the meaning of each of the following terms:

(i) Barter system

(ii) Slavery

(iii) Evolution of man

(iv) Decade

(v) Slave trade

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7. Briefly explain five effects of Iron technology discovery in most African societies.

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